Weather forecast: Only a guess based on the universal Laws of Allaah

Question: The meteorological observatories say that the weather during the coming twenty four hours is expected to be sunny, cloudy, or accompanied by thunder storms. It might rain here or there, and there will be southern or northern winds, and so on.

Answer: Predicting weather conditions or forecasting winds, storms, clouds, or rainfall in some places is based upon knowledge of the universal laws of Allaah… read more here.

Knowing the time of solar and lunar eclipses through the calculation of planetary movements

Question: We have read what was published by Al-Madeenah Newspaper, Issue No. 5402 in 4/1402 A.H. that there will be a full lunar eclipse next Saturday. It will start from 8:30 PM and the partial eclipse ends on Sunday at 12:38 PM. The moon comes out from the penumbra of the earth at 1:37 AM. The phenomenon happened exactly as the Newspaper mentioned.

Answer: The times of lunar and solar eclipses are known through calculation of the planet movements by which we can know whether it is full or partial… read more here.

Relying on the calendar to determine the beginning of Ramadaan

Question: 1: What is the ruling on relying on a calendar to determine the beginning of Ramadaan?

Q 2: If the calendar shows that Sha`baan is twenty nine days, then on the twenty-ninth of Sha`baan it gets cloudy and rain falls to a degree that we cannot sight the new moon of Ramadaan and we don’t hear anything about it, should people begin fasting or not?

Q 3: The Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) said: We are an unlettered Ummah ‘nation’; we do not write or calculate. What is meant by this Hadeeth?

Q 4: The Messenger of Allaah said that whoever believes what the soothsayer says is a disbeliever in what was revealed to Muhammad (peace be upon him), and Shaykh Aboo Bakr Al-Jazaa’iree explained that the sorcerer is someone who foretells the unknown future. So what is the ruling on the calendar which determines the whole year, day by day?

Q 5: The Messenger said that we should complete the month of Sha`baan thirty days when we are unable to sight the new moon of Ramadaan. Should we follow that method or the calendar?

Q 6: What is the difference between the stars and the calendar as far as Tawheed (belief in the Oneness of Allaah) is concerned?

Q 7: The Qur’aan forbids following Taghoot (false gods), then what is the ruling on the makers of calendars?

Answer: Firstly: The Council of Senior Scholars in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have previously discussed the question of sighting the new moon by means of calculations, and issued a decree, which reads the following: The Council of Senior Scholars considered the matter of depending upon calculations in sighting the new moon, and all the relevant evidence from the Qur’aan and the Sunnah (whatever is reported from the Prophet)… read more here.

Reconciling science and religion in issues that appear to be contradictory

Question: How can we reconcile Deen (religion) and science when it comes to issues that appear to be contradictory to one another? For example, we know through Deen that stars were created for three reasons: beautification of the sky, missiles aimed at devils, and guiding signs. But in geography we read that they are a set of celestial bodies that have a special system in their rotation and what we see blazing and falling at night are meteors and shooting stars that exit from a certain gravitation to the gravity of the earth. Therefore, they burn and fall. The falling speed of these shooting stars is 45 miles per second.

Answer: It is only Allaah, the All-Knower; the All-Wise, Who revealed the Glorious Qur’aan and the Sharee`ah (Islaamic law) to His Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). He created the heavens and the earth and created everything and subdued it to achieve the purpose for which it was created. He knows the special characteristics and unknown things he gives to it. Therefore, there is no contradiction between what Allaah tells us or legislates and what He has created for His servants. All these things are compatible with each other. In other words, what Allaah says is compatible with scientific facts… read more here.

Prediction of natural phenomena based on the positions of celestial bodies

Question: What is the ruling on those who predict the future by the stars, for example, if someone says: “If this star is in this position, there will be heavy rain?”.

Answer: Making predictions according to the positions of stars, as explained in the question, is not permissible… read more here.