Doubting the number of the missed days of fast a woman did not make up for

Question: A woman says: “I gave birth to a daughter in Ramadaan after only four days of fast. I broke the fast for the rest of that month, but I cannot remember how many days I made up for because I did not make up for them consecutively. I am almost certain that I did make up for all of them. What is the ruling in this case? Please give me a detailed answer. May Allaah grant you success.”

Answer: If a woman is not certain how many missed days of fast she made up, she must resolve this problem by trying to find out how many days of fast she missed and then make up for them. If she delayed making up for the missed days of fast until the following Ramadaan without having a valid excuse, she is to make up for them as well as give out food to a Miskeen (a needy person) for each delayed missed day of fast the equivalent of half a Saa` (1 Saa`= 3 kg. Approx.) of the staple food of the country, such as dates, wheat, or rice… read more here.

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Delay in making up for the missed days of fasting due to a Shar`ee excuse entails only making up for these days

Question: What is the ruling on a woman that broke her fasting in Ramadaan for a Shar`ee (Islaamically lawful) excuse but could not make up for it before the following Ramadaan? She broke her fast the next Ramadaan due to severe illness and she recovered afterward. Then, she started to make up the missed days of fasting of the first Ramadaan, bought bread, and distributed it among her neighbors. Does this suffice the missed days of fasting?

Answer: If her delay in making up for the missed days of fasting until the next Ramadaan was due to a valid excuse, then she must only make up for the missed days, and does not have to give out food. But if the delay was due to an invalid excuse (not Islaamically lawful), she has to make up for the missed days of fasting and give out food for each day the amount of half a Saa` (1 Saa`= 3 kg. Approx.) of the staple food of the country. She should also make Tawbah (repentance to Allaah, Glorified be He)… read more here.

A woman’s ignorance of the ruling on making up for the missed days of fasting, but after knowing, she started to fast the White Days

Question: My mother is about 65 years old. Since she started her monthly period until she reached menopause, she did not know the ruling on making up for missed days of fasting on which she had her monthly period and so on until she reached menopause. She has not made up her missed days of fasting. The average duration of her monthly period was four days. After she learnt that she must make up for her missed days of fasting approximately two years ago, she started to fast three days every month. Therefore, we ask Allaah (Exalted be He) first and then Your Eminence to give us a detailed answer to this question.

Answer: Your mother must make up for her missed days of fasting in Ramadaan starting from the time she reached puberty. In addition, she must also feed a Miskeen (a needy person) for each day she missed which she delayed from one Ramadaan to another if she is able to do this… read more here.

Becoming pubescent and not making up for fast due to ignorance of its obligation

Question: I started my monthly period when I was 12 years old and did not know at the time that I had to make up for the number of fasting days on which I had my monthly period. But even on the days on which I did not have my monthly period, I did not fast, since I did not know that fasting was obligatory on me. What is your advice for me? I want to rest my conscience as I always feel that I neglected a duty.

Answer: You must make Tawbah (repentance to Allaah) and make up for the missed days of fasting since you started your monthly period, which is a sign of puberty. Moreover, you must feed a Miskeen (a needy person) with half a Saa` (1 Saa`=3 kg. Approx.) for each delayed missed day of fasting… read more here.

Missing fast on some days during several years without making up for them

Question: My mother is about 60 years old. She got married when she was 17 years old. She broke her fast during the first four years after fasting had become obligatory on her, mainly when she was 16, 17, 18, and 19 years old. She is sure that she broke her fast for two days when she was 16 years old, but is unsure whether she fasted the rest of the month. However, she is certain that she broke her fast on some days of the month. When she was 17 years old, she broke her fast in the entire month of Ramadaan; when she was 18 years old, she broke her fast on 24 days and only fasted the first six days of the month because she was breastfeeding. When she was 19 years old, she broke her fast in the entire month.

My question is: What must she do now? Please note that she started to make up for the missed Ramadaan fasts when she was 19 years old only 17 days ago. If there is a Sadaqah (voluntary charity) that she can pay, is it permissible that she pay it to her orphaned children? May Allaah reward you with the best.

Answer: Your mother must make up for the number of days on which she broke her fast during the months of Ramadaan and feed a Miskeen (poor person) half a Saa` (1 Saa`= 3 kg. Approx.) of the staple food of the country such as rice, dates, or wheat for each missed day of fast if she has can. If she delayed making up for the missed days due to a valid excuse, she is not required to feed the poor, but only to make up her missed days of fast… read more here.

Should the woman who made up for missed days of Sawm intermittently re-observe Sawm consecutively?

Question: When I first began menstruating, I did not observe Sawm (Fast) during Ramadaan because I was so young. However, I made up for the missed Ramadaan fasts intermittently in order not to be noticed by anyone. Is it permissible for me to re-observe Sawm consecutively? Am I liable for Kaffaarah (expiation)? If yes, what is the amount to be paid as Kaffaarah? al-Salaamu `alaykum wa rahmatullaah wa barakaatuh (May Allaah’s Peace, Mercy, and Blessings be upon you), may Allaah preserve you.

Answer: It is sufficient for you to make up for the days of fasting you missed when you were young, even if intermittently. However, you are liable for Kaffaarah if you delayed making them up till a subsequent Ramadaan. In this case, you should feed a poor person for each day you delayed making up an amount of half a Saa` (1 Saa`=3 kg. Approx.) of the staple foodstuff… read more here.

A person was forced to break their Sawm during Ramadaan and forgot

Question: What is the ruling on a person who was forced to break their Sawm (Fast) during Ramadaan and forgot to make up for that day, but remembered after about four years? What should they do in such a case?

Answer:  Whoever breaks their Sawm during Ramadan for a Shar`ee (Islaamically lawful) excuse has to make up for the days missed even if many years have passed. If this delay was not for a Shar`ee excuse, the person in question has to feed a needy person for each day missed an amount of half a Saa` (1 Saa` = 3 kg. Approx.) of wheat, rice, or any of the staple food of the country… read more here.

Breaking Sawm in Ramadaan for a Shar`ee excuse and breaking its compensatory Sawm before Thuhr Salaah due to ignorance

Question: I broke my Sawm (Fast) during Ramadaan for a Shar`ee (Islaamically lawful) excuse. When I was making up for that day, I broke my Sawm again before the Thuhr (noon) Prayer as I was ignorant about the ruling. What should I do in such a case? And is there any Kaffaarah (expiation) due?

Answer: You have to make up for the day which you failed to complete while observing Sawm. If you delay making up for it until the next Ramadaan without a Shar`ee excuse, you have to feed a needy person an amount of half a Saa` (1 Saa` = 3 kg. Approx.) of the staple food of your country, along with making up for it… read more here.

Breaking compensatory Sawm, thinking it is the same as voluntary Sawm

Question: I did not observe Sawm (Fast) on one of the days of Ramadaan because of an illness. Afterwards, I made up for that day, but at ten o’clock in the morning on that day, some guests visited me at home and I broke my Sawm, as I thought that compensatory Sawm carries the same ruling as voluntary Sawm. Then, in a religious session I heard that I was mistaken for doing so, and the preacher told me to ask Your Eminence. I hope to know the ruling on what I have done, and what I should do.

Answer: Whoever commences an obligatory Sawm like making up for a missed day of Ramadaan or any other obligatory Sawm like that for vowing or for an oath is forbidden to break their Sawm without a Shar`ee (Islaamically lawful) excuse, because when one commences an obligatory Sawm, he has to complete it unless he has a Shar`ee excuse… read more here.

Having sexual intercourse with one’s husband while making up for the missed days of Sawm in Ramadaan

Question: A woman had her menstrual period during Ramadaan. After Ramadaan ended, she made up for the days she missed because of the menstrual period, and her husband had intercourse with her while she was observing Sawm (Fast) one of these missed days. What should she do if she was forced and if she was not?

Answer: The woman who, invalidated her Sawm by having intercourse with her husband when she was making up for one of the missed days of Sawm in Ramadaan, has to make up for that day. In addition, she has to offer Tawbah (repentance to Allaah) as it is impermissible for her to break her Sawm… read more here.

Having sexual intercourse with one’s husband during the daytime in Ramadaan while menstruating and about to take Ghusl

Question: A woman had sexual intercourse with her husband during the daytime of Ramadaan, and it was during her menstruation. She was expecting to take the after-menstruation Ghusl (full ritual bath) on that day upon the termination of her period. Is it Waajib (obligatory) on both of them to offer a Kaffaarah (expiation)? I hope that you will explain all the Kaffaarahs due in this regard to me.

Answer: According to Ijmaa` (consensus of scholars), having sexual intercourse with a menstruating wife is forbidden. Whoever does so intentionally, is aware of the prohibition, and knows that his wife is in her menstruation commits a prohibited deed which is one of the major sins. In such a case, he has to show sincere Tawbah (repentance to Allaah) and give out one or half a Dinar as a Kaffaarah for that. Evidences are explicit in the Qur’aan and the Sunnah (whatever is reported from the Prophet) on the strict prohibition of such a deed… read more here.

Not making up for the missed days of fast in Ramadaan due to menstruation and not knowing their number

Question: A woman says that she fasted the month of Ramadaan since it has been due on her, but she has not made up for the days she did not fast in her monthly periods. Now she does not know the number of days she missed and asks what she should do.

Answer: This woman must make up for the days she did not fast from the previous months of Ramadaan and feed a needy person an amount of half a Saa` (1 Saa`=3 kg. Approx.) of the staple food of the country for each fasting day she missed as expiation for delaying the making up of these days until another Ramadan came… read more here.

Having sexual intercourse with the wife in one of the days of Ramadaan while fasting

Question: An anonymous person says that 30 years ago, he married a woman and had sexual intercourse with her on one of the days of Ramadaan while he was fasting. He neglected that matter all this time because he was ignorant. However, he admits that he knew that this is impermissible and that he has to fast two months, emancipate a Muslim slave, or feed sixty poor people. He says that he cannot fast two months. In addition, his financial conditions are bad and he cannot free a slave or feed sixty people. Hence, I refer his question to you and hope that you will answer him. May Allaah grant you all success and benefit Islaam and Muslims with you. All praise is due to Allaah.

Answer: If anyone has sexual intercourse with his wife while fasting in the daytime in Ramadaan, he is required to repent to Allaah (Exalted be He) for that act. In addition, it is obligatory on him to make up for that day and to observe the Kaffaarah (expiation) for his act. The Kaffaarah is to emancipate a Muslim slave… read more here.

Having menstruation every month is no excuse for not observing expiatory Sawm

Question: I broke my Swam (Fast) in a day in Ramadaan when my husband had sexual intercourse with me with my approval. I made up for this day. Please give me a Fatwaa (legal opinion issued by a qualified Muslim scholar), because I am confused. I cannot observe Sawm two successive months and my health is not so good. Moreover, I have menstruation every month. Please answer me. May Allaah reward you with the best.

Answer: Having sexual intercourse during the daytime in Ramadaan invalidates Sawm and requires the expiation in addition to making up for that day. The expiation incumbent upon each of you is to emancipate a Muslim slave… read more here.

Obeying the husband in having sexual intercourse in the daytime in Ramadaan due to ignorance of the ruling

Question: I am aware of a few rulings about the Kaffaarah (expiation) of the nullification of Sawm (Fast) and I hope you will give me some information about the Kaffaarah of invalidating Sawm by having sexual intercourse in the daytime in Ramadaan. I knew from a Muslim scholar and also read in Al-Muslimoon newspaper that the Kaffaarah is to emancipate a Muslim slave; and if this is impossible, then a person should fast sixty days. If this is impossible, then sixty poor people should be fed.

I would like to ask you about the Kaffaarah of invalidating the Sawm because of having sexual intercourse in the daytime in Ramadaan. I do not know the Kaffaarah in detail and I ask you to give me the answer. May Allaah reward you in the best.

Does feeding sixty needy persons apply to the wife just like the husband and therefore the total number becomes 120 needy persons? Also, a husband might be aware that doing this spoils one’s Sawm, but his sexual drive overcame him, whereas the wife was unaware but simply obeyed her husband and so sexual intercourse took place in the daytime in Ramadaan with the approval of both of them.

Answer: If a husband has sexual intercourse with his wife in the daytime in Ramadaan, each of them is required to observe the Kaffaarah unless the wife does so unwillingly. In this case, there is no Kaffaarah incumbent on her… read more here.

He had sexual intercourse with his wife in the daytime in Ramadaan and was given a Fatwaa that if they do not perform Salaah, they need not to make up for the days of fast they missed

Question: I had sexual intercourse with my wife twice in the daytime in Ramadaan and in two different years. I remember that the first time I was returning from a journey but I do not remember the second time. Regardless of the excuse, I regret what I did and I ask Allaah (Exalted be He) to accept my repentance and forgive all my sins, for He is the All-Forgiving. I asked one of the shaykhs by phone while I was offering Hajj in the past year, 1414 AH. In Makkah. He told me that if I and my wife had been observing all the Prayers and had not been neglecting any of them for any reason, so we would have to fast two consecutive months. He added to me that if we offer some Prayers but neglect others, that we would be considered disbelievers. May Allaah protect us from that. Thus, according to him, we have to return to Islaam, regret what we did and not repeat it. We were stunned with this Fatwaa (legal opinion issued by a qualified Muslim scholar), especially because we testify that no one is worthy of worship but Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah. We believe in Allaah, the Last Day, Angels, the revealed Books, and destiny, its good and bad.

Dear shaykh, please give us your Fatwaa regarding what I and my wife should do. May Allaah reward you with the best. I would like you to note that we cannot fast two successive months, because I donated my kidney to my brother in 1406 A.H. And I should drink water continually in order to preserve the other kidney. In addition, my wife suffers from several diseases. Anyway, we may be able to fast if we divided the two successive months, but is this sufficient? May Allaah reward you with all the good and benefit the Muslim nation with you. He is the All-Hearing, the All-Nearer, and the One Who answers supplications.

Answer: If you and your wife are unable to emancipate a Muslim slave or to fast in order to atone for having sexual intercourse during the daytime in Ramadaan, both of you has to observe two expiations by feeding sixty poor persons for each time of expiation; each poor person takes half a Saa` (1 Saa`=3 kg. Approx.) from the staple food of the country. Thus, each of you has to give out sixty Saa`s and distribute them among sixty needy persons, and each takes a Saa`, which is about three kilograms… read more here.

Having sexual intercourse with the wife in the daytime of Ramadaan due to ignorance

Question: I was young and uneducated when I got married. My husband used to have sex with me in the daytime in Ramadaan and I was agreeable, but I was ignorant of the punishment and so was he. Now, he is dead and I do not know the number of days on which I did so. What should I do?

Answer: You are required to observe the due Kaffaarah (expiation) of each day of Ramadaan where you had sexual intercourse. The Kaffaarah is to emancipate a believing slave. If you cannot do that, you have to fast two successive months (60 days)… read more here.

Getting up in a state of Janaabah due to lack of water and breaking fast assuming that it is impermissible to fast in this state

Question: I got married more than 30 years ago. I am Bedouin and illiterate and I have no religious knowledge. Moreover, there are no knowledgeable people around and we are in complete ignorance of the matters of our religion. However, I had sexual intercourse with my wife in Ramadaan after Fajr (Dawn) Prayer and she was willing. We broke our fast together that day and it was our first Ramadaan (i.e. in marriage). We were young and we did so thinking that being Junub (person in a state of major ritual impurity) because I slept with her during night and there was no water, it was impermissible to fast without Ghusl (full ritual bath following major ritual impurity). Therefore, I copulated with her after Fajr Prayer and we were ignorant of the related rulings.

Answer: It is obligatory on you to repent to Allaah (Exalted be He) and not do so again. Then, you have to do the required Kaffaarah (expiation), which is to emancipate a believing slave for each one of you. If this is not possible, each of you has to fast two successive months… read more here.

Having sexual intercourse without ejaculation in the daytime in Ramadaan entails Kaffaarah

Question: I got married when I was about sixteen and now I am eighty years old. I have approached my wife in the daytime in Ramadaan while I was fasting. I have had sex her without ejaculation and I do not know how many times I moved in her. I would like to ask you whether I have to make up for such days. May Allaah keep you benefiting Muslims. I hope you will answer me in order not be charged with that in the Hereafter.

Answer: You and your wife, if she did so willingly, are asked for expiation. It is to emancipate a believing slave. If you could not do that, you have to fast two successive months. If this is even impractical for you, each of you have to feed sixty poor persons… read more here.

While traveling, a person broke his Sawm and then had sexual intercourse with his wife

Question: I was on a journey in Ramadaan and I broke my fast while traveling. Then, I returned from traveling and went home. I saw my wife and had sexual intercourse with her in the daytime of Ramadaan while she was fasting. She was not unwilling but she was ignorant because she is illiterate. She thought that fasting a day in place of the missed day is enough. This happened a short time ago. She decided to fast two successive months without asking anyone but she could only fast 15 days. Please explain what we should do. May Allaah guide you to what is right!

Answer: You have to pay Kaffaarah (expiation) according to your capacity. It is to emancipate a believing slave; and if you cannot, you should fast two successive months. If this is not possible, you should offer food to sixty poor persons: for each one half a Saa` (1 Saa`=3 kg. Approx.) of wheat, rice or other such local staple food… read more here.

Feeding the poor as a Kaffaarah should extend for sixty days

Question: Is the obligation of feeding sixty poor people discharged when the total amount – enough for sixty people – is given in one container to one family provider?

Answer: Feeding poor people can take the form of giving each poor person half a Saa` (1 Saa`= 3 kg. Approx.), which equals approximately 1.5 kg, of a staple foodstuff. However, it will discharge the obligation to gather the aggregate number of poor people and offer them lunch or dinner according to the correct opinion maintained by scholars… read more here.

Should the Kaffaarah for the missed day of Sawm be feeding a Miskeen for an entire day or just one meal?

Question: How should I feed? Should I feed a Miskeen (a needy person) for an entire day, that is, from the morning to the evening, or just one meal?

Answer: It suffices to give every one of the sixty Miskeens 1/2 Saa`, (1 Saa`= 3 kg. Approx.) of the staple food eaten by your family… read more here.

Breaking Sawm deliberately due to feeling extreme thirst

Question: When I was fifteen years old, i.e., after puberty, I broke my Sawm (Fast) on two or three days in Ramadaan because I felt thirsty, not being aware of the great sin in breaking one’s Sawm intentionally. I have not made up for those days until now, though I am now fifty. I am deeply regretful and ask Your Eminence: Do I have to make up for the missed days or what should I do?

Answer: It is Waajib (obligatory) on this woman to make up for the missed days of Ramadaan since the age of puberty and give Kaffaarah (expiation) to the needy for every day, i.e., 1/2 Saa` (1 Saa` = 3 kg. Approx.) of dates, or barley, or similar staple food of your country, due to her unexcused delay in making up for the missed days until the following Ramadaan came... read more here.

If a fasting person gets up in a state of Janaabah

Question: Is it permissible for a couple to observe Sawm (Fast) after having sexual intercourse even though they slept until the break of dawn without taking Janaabah Ghusl (full ritual bath to cleanse of sexual discharge)?

Answer: When a couple have sexual intercourse during the last part of the night before the break of dawn and then hold the intention of Sawm at dawn even before taking Ghusl, their intention of Sawm is valid and they can take Janabah Ghusl afterwards... read more here.

A woman putting her hand into her vagina for cleansing

Question:  I am a woman who was ignorant that when a woman puts her hand into her vagina for cleansing, this renders Sawm (Fast) invalid. I continued to do so for many years. Now I am making up for the missed days of Ramadaan. Is it Waajib (obligatory) on me to offer a Kaffaarah (expiation) by feeding the needy? What is the amount of such a Kaffaarah? It is worth mentioning that I did so out of ignorance and I cannot observe Sawm except in winter.

Answer: The act of putting the hand into the vagina does not render Sawm invalid unless it results in sexual discharge out of sexual desire. When it results in sexual discharge, it renders Sawm invalid, and it is Waajib on a woman to make up for it only... read more here.

Meaning of fondling one’s wife during Sawm

Question: I am a thirty-year-old young man. I am married and have children, praise be to Allaah. I am, praise be to Allaah, punctual in performing Obligatory Prayers. During Ramadaan, I offer `Ishaa’ (Night) Prayer, Taraaweeh (special supererogatory night Prayer in Ramadan), and Tahajjud (optional late night Prayer) in Al-Masjid Al-Nabawee (the Prophet’s Mosque in Madeenah).

One Ramadaan night, however, after performing Tahajjud I went shopping and all of a sudden saw a woman of great charm. To be honest, I was charmed by her but I sought refuge with Allaah from the accursed Satan and went home without committing any sin. Anyway, it was in vain to try to sleep after performing Fajr (Dawn) Prayer as I was totally obsessed by the image of this woman. Meanwhile, my wife was lying beside me and I started foreplay with her with the woman’s picture in my mind. To clarify more, my penis was at that moment between the thighs of my wife which caused me unconsciously to ejaculate. Upon this, I wished I had disappeared off the face of the earth before this could have happened. Please guide me, what should I do?

Actually, I made up for this day but I was told that I have to fast, in addition, for two consecutive months, which I cannot afford.

Please, tell me in detail about the Kaffaarah (expiation). Is it permissible for me to pay the value of food to be given to the poor in cash? If yes, how much does a Saa` (1 Saa`=3 kg. Approx.) equal in riyals. Please, answer me as soon as possible because I am so confused and Satan whispers many evil thoughts – Allaah only knows how evil they are – to me. May Allaah reward you with the best.

Answer: Fast during Ramadaan does not stand for only abstaining from eating and drinking. Rather, it also entails that all the body organs fast, i.e., abstain from all things prohibited by Allaah. Thus, a tongue should fast and abstain from backbiting, gossip, and lying... read more here.

Permanent suffering from an illness before Ramadaan until death

Question: My sister’s husband suffered from cancer, may Allaah protect us and you from it, and underwent surgery. In that year 1411 A.H., he became very sick before, during, and after Ramadaan. He died after Ramadaan, may Allaah admit him to Paradise. He did not fast the Ramadaan of that year.

The question is: How much Kaffaarah (expiation) should be paid for a missed day? Is it a Saa` (1 Saa` = 3 kg. Approx.), more, or less? Is it permissible to give rice instead of wheat? Is it permissible to give only wheat?

Should the Kaffaarah be paid all at once on one day or day by day? We would like to know the answer to this question. It should be known that his wife, my sister, will pay this Kaffaarah. He had young children and two wives, my sister and her co-wife who is from our tribe. He also was burdened with debts.

Answer: If your sister’s husband continued to suffer from this illness before Ramadaan until his death, you have not to make up for the missed days of fast or to pay Kaffaarah. He is exempted from fast during Ramadaan due to illness, and because he could not fast after Ramadaan due to the continuation of his disease until death..read more here.

Four years have passed and she has not been able to perform Sawm in Ramadaan

Question: My wife is nearly 50 years old. She is completely paralyzed and has not spoken for five years. Four years have passed and she has not been able to perform Sawm (Fast) in Ramadaan. We did not feed Miskeens (needy people) as we did not know. Moreover, she is still extremely ill, and cannot move or speak except through signs. We do not understand anything she says except the Shahaadah (Testimony of Faith), which she can say.

Based on her condition, I hope Your Eminence will give me a legal opinion concerning the rulings on her acts of `Ibaadah (worship) and the Sawm or its compensation that she should perform. May Allaah safeguard you!

Answer: If two or more trusted doctors decided that your wife’s illness cannot be cured, she should feed a Miskeen for each day in which she did not perform Sawm in the past as well as the days that she will not fast in the future an amount of half a Saa` (1 Saa` = 3 kg. Approx.) of the staple food of the country... read more here.

Performing compensatory Sawm for Ramadaan in the future

Question: My mother is 58 years old. She became ill on 7 Rajab, 1418 A.H, which resulted in being handicapped. Later, she began to recover, all praise be to Allaah. She did not perform Sawm (Fast) in Ramadaan, so that she would be able to take her medications and eat, because she suffered from incontinence, may Allaah safeguard you. Should we feed Miskeens (needy people) on her behalf? Is she obliged to offer Kaffaarah (expiation), and what is its amount?

Answer: If your mother is able to perform compensatory Sawm for Ramadaan in the future after recovering, she should wait till then. She should perform compensatory Sawm, and she is not obliged to offer Kaffaarah. However, if her illness is permanent and she cannot perform compensatory Sawm in the future, she should feed a Miskeen for each day in which she broke her Sawm an amount of half a Saa` (1 Saa` = 3 kg. Approx.) of the staple food of the country... read more here.

Feeding a Miskeen by the patient who can not perform Sawm

Question: My wife suffers from diabetes to the extent that she sometimes faints. Two female Muslim doctors treating her decided that she could not perform Sawm (Fast) or Hajj. Respected Shaykh, my wife was not able to perform Sawm last Ramadaan due to her illness and pregnancy; then she miscarried.

The question is: What is the ruling as she is unable to perform Sawm especially after her miscarriage? What is the ruling on her inability to perform Hajj, taking into consideration that she did not perform the obligatory Hajj? Moreover, she is pregnant now, and is expected to give birth at the end of Sha`baan, what should she do about Ramadaan this year? The doctors, who are treating her, still order her not to perform Sawm for an indefinite period. I hope you will give us your legal opinion, may Allaah reward you with the best!

Answer: First, if the reality of your ill wife is as you mentioned, she should feed a Miskeen (needy) for each day on which she did not perform Sawm an amount equal to half a Saa` (1 Saa` = 3 kg. Approx.) of the staple food of your country.

Second, if she could not perform Hajj in person, she should deputize someone to perform the obligatory Hajj and `Umrah on her behalf… read more here.

Taking medicine in the daytime of Ramadaan

Question: I have been suffering from depression and psychological disturbance for more than thirteen years, and I use some sedatives, but the number of tablets that I take have now reached 10 tablets per night, in addition to the medicine that I take for diabetes and the electro-convulsive therapy because my body has gained immunity against the medicine. I sleep about two hours only every night after taking the tablets, then I spend the rest of the night suffering from sleeplessness and psychological instability.

And now as Ramadaan is approaching, the time of taking the medicine will change and I will encounter a lot of suffering like last year, as I underwent a lot of exhaustion and fatigue by observing Sawm (Fast). Some scholarly students have told me not to observe Sawm and to feed poor people instead, and now I am not able to do without sleeping and having rest. I beg Your Eminence to direct me to the right way, and I hope that your answer be written on paper so as to be evidence that I can show to my sons or anybody who may suspect my attitude. May Allaah guard you and reward you with the best.

Answer: If the case is as you mentioned, and you are unable to fast because you need to take the medicine during the daytime, and the illness you have continues throughout the whole year, it is permissible for you not to observe Sawm and you must feed one Miskeen (needy) for each day an amount of half a Saa` (1 Saa` = 3 kg. Approx.) from the country’s staple food such as rice… read more here.

Should the woman who was injured by fire make up for the missed days of Sawm?

Question: My wife was predestined to be injured by fire as the kerosene refrigerator burst into flames. Some parts of her body were injured due to this fire years ago. Then, Ramadaan came while she was being treated in the hospital and was pregnant as well. Then, she gave birth to a baby in the hospital during her illness. She stayed in the hospital for a year and did not perform compensatory Sawm (Fast) for Ramadaan of that year. She is still ill in the hospital; sometimes she is pregnant and some others she is ill. As I mentioned, she did not perform compensatory Sawm until now. Is she obliged to perform compensatory Sawm or anything else?

I hope you will give us your Fatwaa (legal opinion issued by qualified Muslim scholar) concerning these religious matters that Your Eminence sees as well as the necessary action that should be performed, including compensatory Sawm or anything else. May Allaah safeguard you and enlighten your sight and insight. Al-salaamu alaykum wa rahmatullaah wa barakaatuh (May Allaah’s Peace, Mercy and Blessings be upon you).

Answer: Your wife should perform compensatory Sawm for the days she broke her Sawm in Ramadaan. However, if she delayed it until another Ramadaan passes without an excuse, she should perform Kaffaarah (expiation) in addition to compensatory Sawm by feeding a Miskeen the equivalent of half a Saa` (1 Saa` = 3 kg. Approx.) of wheat, rice, etc. Of the staple food of your country, for every day of Sawm she broke… read more here.

Offering Sawm on the part of a kidney patient

Question: In the year 1409 A.H., it was Allaah’s (Glorified be He) destiny that I was afflicted with renal failure, which made me break my Sawm (Fast) three days in Ramadaan. Three months later, I underwent a surgical operation for a kidney transplant. The operation was successful, thanks to Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He). In the year 1410 A.H., (i.e. after the kidney transplant) the doctors advised me not to observe Sawm due to my need to drink large amounts of water and some medicines. After that, I suffered from blood pressure, i.e. in the year 1411 A.H. Yet, I have managed to observe Sawm in Ramadaan till now, praise be to Allaah, but until now I have not made up for the month of Ramadaan or the three days I did not observe Sawm.

– Is there Kaffaarah (expiation) due on me for the previous months of Ramadaan?
– Is it permissible to give the total sum to just one person?
– Is it permissible to give it in the form of money? If so, how much is it?

Answer: It is obligatory on you to observe Sawm the days you failed to observe, once you are able to do so, since this is an obligation that you owe. You should both feed a poor person half a Saa` (1 Saa` = 3 kg. Approx.) as Kaffaarah for each day and make up for these days. You should feed a poor person for each day of Sawm you missed, because you delayed making up for it despite your ability to do. It is up to you whether you give the whole Kaffaarah to one poor person or more… read more here.

Fasting on the part of a heart patient

Question: I suffer from heart disease and I was subjected to electronarcosis in a hospital in Buraydah. The doctor prescribed continuous therapy for me. I find it too difficult to fast Ramadan. I also suffer from some other ailments in my abdomen, such as colitis and very severe constipation. I hope Your Eminence will give me a Fatwaa (legal opinion issued by qualified Muslim scholar) regarding fast and what I should do. May Allaah protect you!

Answer: You should make up for the days of Ramadaan you failed to fast when you recover from your illness. If this is an incurable illness, you should offer Kaffaarah (expiation) by feeding a poor person for each day of fast you missed. The amount of food you should give to a poor person is half a Saa` (1 Saa` = 3 kg. Approx.) of wheat, rice, or other such staple food… read more here.

How to make up for the missed fasts of several months of Ramadaan?

Question: It happened that my wife suffered some burns on her body in 1408 A.H., and she was hospitalized for treatment. She remained there till the end of the year, which prevented her from fasting the month of Ramadaan in that year (i.e. 1408 A.H.). She could not fast because of the instructions of the doctor, since her body was bleeding and she was receiving glucose nutrition. She was also obliged to make up for a week of fast that she missed in Ramadaan of 1407 A.H. When she left the hospital, she managed to fast the Ramadaan of 1408 A.H. and then fasted the week of the previous Ramadaan of 1407 A.H. Is her fast this way correct, as she observed fast for what she missed in 1408 A.H. first and then the week missed in 1407 A.H.?

Please clarify the issue and the manner of expiatory fast or feeding the poor if there is anything obligatory on her.

Answer: The way she made up for the days of fast she missed of Ramadaan is correct. Yet, if she could fast the seven days before the following Ramadaan, she should feed a poor person as Kaffaarah (expiation) for each day,because she delayed making up for them till the next Ramadaan. Her way of fast is correct… read more here.

Observing Sawm on the part of a diabetic

Question: I have suffered from diabetes for four years. I used to fast Ramadaan every year, but over the last two years I have found it too hard to fast. My physician decided that I should break fast, but I continued to fast some days and break fast on other days.

Am I to be rewarded by Allaah for these days which I fasted? Should I make up for the days on which I broke fast?

During this time, I was still a student, so my father paid to feed needy people for each day on which I broke fast. Now, all praise be to Allaah, I work and earn enough money; should I repay to my father the money he paid to feed the needy people on my behalf or use the money to feed more needy people?

Answer: You have to make up for the days on which you broke fast in Ramadaan, and should also offer Kaffaarah (expiation) for the days on which you broke fast and did not make up for until the next Ramadaan. The Kaffaarah is half a Saa` (1 Saa` = 3 kg. Approx.) of the staple food ofthe country, which you should give to needy people or just to one person in proportion to the number of these days. The Kaffaarah that your father paid on your behalf is counted and you do not have to offer it again… read more here.

An old woman who lost her memory, should she fast?

Question: Through this letter, I would like to inform you that my mother has now reached miserable old age, where she is unaware of anything regarding religion or worldly affairs. She can only recognize my voice. She cannot differentiate night from day, nor can she recognize anything else. The matter of the obligation of Sawm (fast) on her bewilders me. Is there any Kaffaarah (expiation) obligatory on her, since she is so disabled that she cannot carry out any of the pillars of Islaam? It should be known that this is not due to negligence, laziness, or Kufr (disbelief) on her part. Rather, this is due to old age.

Please give me your Fatwaa (legal opinion issued by qualified Muslim scholar). Is it obligatory on us to feed the poor on her behalf? May Allaah guide you and grant you success.

Answer: If the reality is as you mentioned, your mother owes nothing, since she is no longer Mukallaf (person meeting the conditions to be held legally accountable for their actions), because she lost her memory as a result of her old age… read more here.

Should an old woman who can not perform the acts of worship properly feed the poor?

Question: My mother suffers Alzheimer disease which makes her forgetful and can recognize neither the relatives nor times, such as the month of Ramadan. Last Ramadaan, for example, she did not fast. Moreover, she is feeble in the sense that she cannot eat food enough to enable her to fast. Is it obligatory on her to fast? What should she do regarding the past Ramadaan that she did not fast? What should she do regarding Salaah (Prayer), as she cannot recognize their due times and the number of Rak`ahs (units of Prayer), but she performs Salaah according to her estimation? Please give us a Fatwaa, may Allaah reward you!

Answer: If the condition of this woman is as mentioned in the question, it is obligatory on her neither to perform Salah nor fast, since, as mentioned in this case, she is not accountable for her actions. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: There are three whose actions are not recorded: an insane person until he is restored to sanity, a sleeper until he awakens, and a boy until he reaches puberty. The person whose mind became disordered has the same ruling as an insane person… read more here.

Should the sons of an old divorced woman, who cannot observe Sawm feed the poor as expiation on her behalf?

Question: Since my mother cannot endure Sawm (Fast) due to her permanent feebleness, she has not been observing Sawm during Ramadaan for the past twenty years. During this period, she would feed a poor person as expiation for each day wherein she broke her Sawm. Three years ago, she was divorced by my father. Now she is under the sponsorship of both me and my brother who does not live with us in the same house. As we have limited income, is it obligatory on her to feed the poor as expiation, or should we do this on her behalf? It should be known that she has no financial resources. What is the amount of food that should be given to a poor person as expiation for each day? Should the amount of Zakaat-ul-Fitr (obligatory charity paid before the Festival of Breaking the Fast) that is due on her be paid by all of us, or does it suffice that one of us pays it on her behalf?

Answer: You should feed, on behalf of your mother who cannot endure Sawm permanently,a poor person an amount of one and a half kilograms of the prevailing food of the country as expiation for each day wherein she broke her Sawm. It suffices that this be done by any of you. The same applies to Zakaat al-Fitr, i.e., it suffices that any of you should pay it on her behalf… read more here.

An old man who can neither observe Sawm nor perform Wudoo’

Question: My father is very old and is unable to stand without my help. He was not able to observe Sawm (Fast) in the current Ramadaan. He usually performs Tayammum (dry ablution with clean earth) to offer Salaah (Prayer), as he is not able to perform Wudoo’ (ablution). He offers Salaah either while sitting glorying on his side. What is the ruling on this?

Answer: First, If your father is unable to observe Sawm due to his old age, he should feed one Miskeen (needy person) an amount of about one half a Saa` (1 Saa` = 3 kg. Approx.) of dates, wheat, or similar staple food of the country for each day on which he breaks Sawm… read more here.

Is there a fixed age for old people to be permitted not to observe Sawm?

Question: What is the age that if reached by old people makes it permissible for them not to observe Sawm (Fast) of the blessed month of Ramadaan and to feed the poor instead? How should they feed the poor, i.e., should they do so at the end of Ramadaan or day by day?

Answer: There is no fixed age at which old people are permitted not to observe Sawm. Rather, it depends on the permanent inability to observe Sawm. To put it in plain words, if one cannot endure Sawm due to being old, it is permissible for him not to fast and to feed a poor person (as expiation) for every day (wherein he breaks Sawm) half a Saa` (1 Saa`=3 kg. Approx.) of the common food of the country. It is also permissible for him to give out all the fifteen Saa`s at the beginning of Ramadaan… read more here.

Making up for the missed days of fast by a newly-delivered, a pregnant, or a breastfeeding woman

Question: My paternal grandmother asked me to send this question to you, in which she says:

Forty years ago, I gave birth to a baby girl during the blessed month of Ramadaan, and I have not made up for the days on which I broke my fast until now, due to my being preoccupied with worldly affairs and my ignorance of religious matters. When I came to know about religious matters and obligations, I realized my shortcoming for not making up for the days on which I broke my fast. Now I am about eighty years old and I enjoy good health.

My question is: Is it permissible for me to make up for the fast of that month after such long period or not? If yes, should I only fast or combine the fast with feeding? And in case I should do both, should the feeding be at the end of every day I fast or to be done collectively at the end of the month?

Answer: Your grandmother should make up for the days on which she broke her fast during Ramadaan, and seek Forgiveness of Allaah (Exalted be He). She should also feed a poor person in compensation for every day she misses fasting, by giving out about half Saa` (1 Saa` = 3 kg. Approx.) of the staple food of the country, due to her negligence of making up for the fast. It is permissible for her to feed the needy before or after fasting, jointly or separately, even if it is all given to one poor person… read more here.

Sawm of a colon patient

Question: If the state is as you have described, that you have been suffering from this disease for so long and are unable to fast, then it is permissible for you to feed a poor person for each missed day during these years with half a Saa` (1 Saa`=3 kg. Approx.) of wheat, dates, rice, corn, or the like from the average kind of food you feed your family with.

Answer: If the reality is as you have mentioned that you were unable to fast due to suffering severe ill health and that you still can not fast as per the doctor’s instructions, there will be no blame on you... read more here.

Sawm of a diabetic and tuberculosis patient

Question: My mother is 66 years old. For the last seven years she suffered from diabetes, and since she was diagnosed, she has continued to receive treatment for her condition. Also, in 1398 A.H she came down with tuberculosis and I took her to Kuwait in search of treatment. She remained hospitalized at the Thoracic Disease Hospital in 1399-1400 A.H. where she was treated for two years until her condition improved relatively speaking. Since she left the hospital she has been living at my home and she is still being treated for these two conditions and must visit the hospital every week. She also suffers from general physical weakness due to her old age and these incurable diseases. She cannot fast at the present time as she has to drink at least one cup of water every two hours.

Likewise, she did not fast the last two years while she was in the hospital according to the advice of her physicians. Next Ramadaan is coming soon and we would like to know, may Allaah reward you well, what should be done concerning the days of fasting that she missed the last two years and also regarding the fasting of next Ramadaan that she cannot perform. May Allaah grant you success and forgive you! Peace be upon you!

Answer: If the reality is as you mentioned regarding your mother’s illness,then she is allowed to give up fasting during the month of Ramadaan as long as she remains in this condition. If she recovers and is able to make up for the missed days, she should do so by fasting... read more here.

Sawm of a diabetic person

Question: I got married in 1477 A.H. I have ten children; six sons and four daughters. My wife, all praise be to Allaah, is righteous and fears Allah (Exalted be He). Since we have been married, she has been committed to her religion and consistently performed the five obligatory daily Prayers and observed Sawm (Fast) of the month of Ramadaan. I never saw her lazy in performing Salah or observing Sawm during the blessed month of Ramadaan. When she breaks her Sawm because of menstruation, she immediately makes up for the days of Sawm she missed; five days after the end of Ramadaan. However, she has been suffering from diabetes for one year. It was so severe on her to the extent that she fell into a state of unconsciousness and was hospitalized. After several months, she recovered, but she is still suffering from diabetes. Physicians told us that there is no cure for this disease.

During the month of Ramadaan in 1398 A.H., she gave birth to a male baby on the first day of Ramadaan. After the end of the forty days of postpartum period, she tried to make up for the month of Sawm she had missed. She observed Sawm till midday, but she again suffered from vertigo and could notstand up. Thus, she broke her Sawm. After eating and drinking water, she felt better and the dizziness disappeared. A few days later, she suffered vertigo again at midday when she tried to observe Sawm and thus, once more broke her Sawm. She cried out of fear of Allaah (Exalted be He) lest the following Ramadaan should come while she is still in this state. She asked me to inform Your Eminence about her condition. She will try, In-shaa’-Allaah (if Allaah wills), to observe Sawm. What should she do if she suffers vertigo due to observing Sawm? What should I, as her husband, do in this case for the sake of pleasing Allaah (Exalted be He)?

I hope you will guide us to the truth. May Allaah guide you to what pleases Him, grant you success and make Paradise your abode.

Answer: If the reality is as you have mentioned with regard to the continuity of her illness and her inability to make up for the days of Sawm she missed, there will be no harm to delay making up for these days till she is able to perform them even if another Ramadaan passes... read more here.

A diabetic person who is negatively affected by fasting

Question: I suffer from diabetes. Observing Sawm (Fast) affects my health badly. I am seventy two years old. I usually forget in my Salaah (Prayer) and I think this is the result of diabetes.

Answer: If you come to know, through experience, that observing Sawm aggravates your disease or delays your recovery or if your well-versed Muslim physician informs you that observing Sawm causes you harm, you are permitted to break your Sawm. Then, you can, after recovery, make up for the days of Sawm you have missed. But if your disease continues, Allaah forbids, and you are not able to make up for these days or think mostly that you will not recover, you have to feed a needy person half a Saa` (1 Saa`=3 kg. Approx.) of wheat, dates, rice or the like of the food you usually feed your family for every day of Sawm you have missed... read more here.

Sawm of a patient with one sick kidney

Question: My wife underwent an operation before the month of Ramadaan. Because of the operation, she was unable to fast (she had one kidney removed and stones removed from the other kidney). Her physician advised her not to fast for the rest of her life. Thus, we would like to know the religious ruling regarding the expiation for the missed days of fasting.

How should I go about feeding sixty needy persons if this is the expiation that has been ordained? Are we supposed to expiate as long as physicians forbid her from fasting out of fear for her life? Are we supposed to expiate for every year that the doctors believe she should not fast? Are we permitted to pay the expiation in cash? If it is permissible to pay it in cash, then how much should we pay? Am I required to buy grain and distribute it among the needy or should I go to the Sacred Mosque and distribute money among the needy there, as I may not find sixty needy persons here? Please enlighten us, may Allaah reward you well!

Answer: If a reliable Muslim physician has advised her that fasting is harmful to her health, then she should not fast. Instead, she should pay the expiation for each day that she does not fast during the month of Ramadaan by feeding one needy person. Each person should be given half a Saa` (1 Saa`=3 kg Approx.) of wheat, rice, dates or other such foodstuffs eaten in her country. The expiation should not be paid in cash... read more here.

Non-observance of Sawm by someone whom fasting may harm

Question: I suffer from kidney disease. One of my sons donated one of his kidneys to me and the physician who performed the operation advised me not to fast during the month of Ramadaan. The operation was performed only recently, and the physician told me that fasting will endanger my life due to my dire need for water, because this is a newly transferred kidney. I ask Allaah to guide me and I ask your Eminence to tell me what should I do concerning the missed days of fasting? Am I supposed to make up for these days or should I pay charity as I can not fast while in such a state? May Allaah protect and save you!

Answer: If the reality is as you mentioned, then you are allowed to break your fast for as long as fasting causes you hardship. You have to make up for the days of fasting you missed during the month of Ramadaan whenever you are able to do so, even if after one year or more. If you are not likely to recover and to be able to fast in the future, then you should feed a needy person for every day of fasting that you missed during the month of Ramadaan. You should give each person one half Sa` (1 Saa`=3 kg Approx.) of rice, wheat or the like of other foodstuffs like that which you feed your family. In this case, you are not required to make up for these days of missed fasting... read more here.

Paying Zakaat-ul-Fitr on behalf of both one’s married son and the latter’s household

Question 23: I am a married person and have children. I live with my father in his home; is it permissible for my father to pay Zakaat-ul-Fitr (obligatory charity paid before the Festival of Breaking the Fast) on behalf of me and my children?

Answer: If your father pays Zakaat-ul-Fitr on behalf of you, your children and wife, there is nothing wrong with this and it will suffice you for the obligation of paying Zakaat-ul-Fitr. However, if you pay it from your money on behalf of yourself and your dependants, this is better because it is you who should do so... read more here.

Ruling on authorizing a Kaafir to distribute Zakaat-ul-Fitr

Question 22: Some Christians live in our village, and unfortunately some Muslims believe that the Christians are trustworthy so they deposit their trusts with them and not with the Muslims. A Muslim once gave a Christian Zakaat-ul-Fitr (obligatory charity paid before the Festival of Breaking the Fast) and charged him to distribute it among the poor. Is this permissible? Will this Zakaah be accepted from this Muslim?

Answer: It is not permissible to authorize a Kaafir (non-Muslim) to distribute Zakaat-ul-Fitr for he is not entrusted matters related to religion. Thus, the obligation will not be discharged except after the person on whom Zakaat-ul-Fitr is obligatory pays a substitute for it... read more here.