Ignorance of the Mukallaf of the fundamentals of Eemaan is no excuse

Question: Can someone who worships or invokes other than Allaah or offers a sacrificial animal to some shaykh, such as happens in Egypt, be excused for being ignorant or not? If they cannot be excused for being ignorant, how do you explain the story of Dhat Anwat? Please enlighten us, may Allaah reward you!

Answer: A Mukallaf (person meeting the conditions to be held legally accountable for their actions) cannot be excused for worshipping other than Allaah, or offering sacrifices as a means of drawing closer to other than Allaah, or making a vow to other than Allaah, and other acts of worship that should be devoted to Allaah alone… read more here.

Should a young ill female observe Sawm?

Question: My eleven-year-old daughter has to observe Sawm (Fast) in Ramadaan this year, but she suffers from epileptic fits and has to take her medication every day. If she doesn’t, the disease will overtake her again. Should she observe Sawm this year or not?

Answer: If your daughter has not yet reached puberty, she does not have to observe Sawm, for she is not Mukallaf (person meeting the conditions to be held legally accountable for their actions). The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: There are three (persons) whose actions are not recorded… And he mentioned among them the young until they reach puberty… read more here.

An old woman who lost her memory, should she fast?

Question: Through this letter, I would like to inform you that my mother has now reached miserable old age, where she is unaware of anything regarding religion or worldly affairs. She can only recognize my voice. She cannot differentiate night from day, nor can she recognize anything else. The matter of the obligation of Sawm (fast) on her bewilders me. Is there any Kaffaarah (expiation) obligatory on her, since she is so disabled that she cannot carry out any of the pillars of Islaam? It should be known that this is not due to negligence, laziness, or Kufr (disbelief) on her part. Rather, this is due to old age.

Please give me your Fatwaa (legal opinion issued by qualified Muslim scholar). Is it obligatory on us to feed the poor on her behalf? May Allaah guide you and grant you success.

Answer: If the reality is as you mentioned, your mother owes nothing, since she is no longer Mukallaf (person meeting the conditions to be held legally accountable for their actions), because she lost her memory as a result of her old age… read more here.

Exams are not a valid excuse for breaking Sawm in Ramadaan

Question: Is being occupied by exams a valid excuse for breaking Sawm (Fast) during Ramadaan? Here, there is a spread of fataawaa permitting a student who fears that he may be distracted or absent minded to break his Sawm during Ramadaan. Moreover, is it permissible to obey the orders of one’s parents, influenced by such fataawaa permitting breaking the Sawm, to break the Sawm? I hope that Your Eminence will give me a quick reply for such fataawaa have a bad public effect. May Allaah reward you well!

Answer: School exams and such like are not considered valid excuses for breaking Sawm during the daytime of Ramadaan. Moreover, it is not permissible to obey the orders of one’s parents to break Sawm because of exams, for indeed no creature may be obeyed in what constitutes disobedience to the Creator. Rather, obedience (to somebody) is required when he enjoins what is good as stated in the authentic Hadeeth the Prophet (peace be upon him) is reported to have said..read more here.

Concession of breaking Sawm in Ramadaan for a student during exams

Question: I am a student in the third grade of my secondary school. The final exams will be held in Ramadaan, by Allaah’s permission. As you know, during exam days students need energy and they exert more effort because exams are taken on a daily basis. On the other hand, I think that Sawm (Fast) requires comfort and sleep. Is it then permissible for me to break my Sawm during exam days and make up for these days later?

Answer: Breaking Sawm is not permissible for the reason you mentioned. Doing so is Haraam (prohibited) because such a reason is not included in the excuses that allow the breaking of Sawm in Ramadaan..read more here.

Breaking Sawm of Ramadaan for a baker

Question: There is a man in our village who works in a bakery. This man offers Salaah (Prayer) and observes Sawm (Fast) in Ramadaan – all praise be to Allaah – but he asked me if he is permitted to break his Sawm during Ramadaan? Please note that when he bakes the bread, he has to stand in front of the strong heat of the fire for a long time during the day when he is observing Sawm, so he gets very thirsty and exhausted from his work. I hope that Your Eminence will answer my question on this matter, if Allaah (Exalted be He) wills.

Answer: This man is not permitted to break his Sawm; in fact, fasting is obligatory on him. Baking bread in the daytime of Ramadaan is not a legitimate excuse for breaking the Sawm. He should work according to his abilities..read more here.

A 15 year old boy breaking Sawm during Ramadaan

Question: What is the ruling on a 15-year-old youth who breaks his Sawm (Fast) during Ramadaan under the excuse that he is very tired and cannot complete his Sawm? If he is required to make up for the missed Sawm, can he make up for it after the next Ramadaan?

Answer: It is prohibited for a Mukallaf (person meeting the conditions to be held legally accountable for their actions) – someone who is a sane, adult, healthy, resident (non-traveling) Muslim – to break their Sawm during the daytime in Ramadaan. If they experience hardship and are forced by necessity to break their Sawm, exactly as someone who is forced by necessity to eat dead meat, they may only eat as much as is needed to remove the hardship..read more here.

Sawm of workers who do physically hard jobs

Question: All praise be to Allaah (Exalted be He) and peace and blessings be upon His Honorable Prophet. We supplicate to Him (Glorified and Exalted be He) to make Islaam and the Muslims strong and to guard them against the Enemies of Allaah. It is the Islaamic centers, as you know, that are the front for Islaam and Muslims in these countries. We have received a message from one of the scientific departmentsof the University of Tübingen in West Germany, the Department of Occupational and Social Medicine. This letter contains some questions asking for Fatwas pertaining to Ramadaan and observing the Sawm (fast) in this month. Realizing the importance and the sensitivity of the subject, we decided to ask for your advice, hoping that you will guide us to the truth with Allaah’s support.

The questions that were sent to us in that letter are:

What is the Islaamic ruling on observing Sawm for workers who do physically hard work, especially during summer months, such as those who work with blast furnaces?

What is the Islaamic ruling on observing Sawm in the northern parts of the earth where the sun only sets for a very short time, maybe only a few minutes, or in places such as Scandinavia where the sun never sets? We would like to inform you that your Fatwaa may be misused by the authorities in order to issue laws and apply them to the foreign workers here in Germany. There are more than one and half million Muslim workers in this state. We are worried that if these questions are answered without taking these matters into consideration, it may cause great problems for the Muslims living in these states, as most of them do not know the legal rulings of their religion.

Answer: It is well-known in the religion of Islam that fasting in Ramadaan is an obligation upon every Mukallaf (person meeting the conditions to be held legally accountable for their actions) and that it is one of the pillars of Islaam.Therefore, every Mukallaf should observe the Sawm in order to fulfill what Allaah has obligated them to do, hoping to get Allaah’s Reward and fearing His Punishment..read more here.

Breaking Sawm of Ramadaan for workers who are overtaxed by work

Question: I heard a Khateeb (preacher) while delivering the Khutbah (sermon) on the second Friday of Ramadaan saying that workers who get extremely exhausted because of the nature of their work, and they have no other source of income, are allowed to refrain from Sawm during Ramadaan. Instead, they should feed a poor person for each day of Ramadaan they do not fast on or equally pay fifteen Dirhams. This urged me to write this letter to you to ask if this Fatwaa is substantiated by any authentic evidence from the Qur’aan and the Sunnah.

Answer: It is not permissible for a Mukallaf to break their Sawm during the daytime in Ramadaan under the pretext that they are workers. However, if they suffer from great hardship that may force them to break their Sawm during the daytime, they are permitted to break their Sawm but only up to the point of relieving the hardship. After that, they have to resume abstention from the invalidators of Sawm until sunset and break their Sawm at the time all Muslims break it. However, they have to make up for such a day later. Accordingly, the Fatwa you mentioned is incorrect..read more here.

Breaking Sawm of Ramadaan for a policeman

Question: I am a solider and Ramadaan has arrived. Am I permitted to break my Sawm (fast) during Ramadaan as the circumstances do not help me to observe it?

Answer: You are not permitted to break your Sawm in Ramadaan if you are Mukallaf (person meeting the conditions to be held legally accountable for their actions), unless you are on a journey or suffering from a disease that makes you unable to fast..read more here.

Breaking Sawm of Ramadaan for a farmer during the harvest

Question: What is the ruling on someone who cultivates land and it happens that the time of harvest coincides with Ramadaan? Is he excused from fasting during Ramadaan because of his work or not? Please bear in mind that the man cannot observe the Sawm (fast) and work at the same time.

Answer: The Sawm of Ramadaan is one of the pillars of Islam and is unanimously agreed upon as an obligation upon every Mukallaf (person meeting the conditions to be held legally accountable for their actions). Allaah says: So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadaan i.e. is present at his home), he must observe Sawm (fasts) that month, and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Sawm (fasts) must be made up] from other days...read more here.