Question: My wife underwent an operation before the month of Ramadaan. Because of the operation, she was unable to fast (she had one kidney removed and stones removed from the other kidney). Her physician advised her not to fast for the rest of her life. Thus, we would like to know the religious ruling regarding the expiation for the missed days of fasting.
How should I go about feeding sixty needy persons if this is the expiation that has been ordained? Are we supposed to expiate as long as physicians forbid her from fasting out of fear for her life? Are we supposed to expiate for every year that the doctors believe she should not fast? Are we permitted to pay the expiation in cash? If it is permissible to pay it in cash, then how much should we pay? Am I required to buy grain and distribute it among the needy or should I go to the Sacred Mosque and distribute money among the needy there, as I may not find sixty needy persons here? Please enlighten us, may Allaah reward you well!
Answer: If a reliable Muslim physician has advised her that fasting is harmful to her health, then she should not fast. Instead, she should pay the expiation for each day that she does not fast during the month of Ramadaan by feeding one needy person. Each person should be given half a Saa` (1 Saa`=3 kg Approx.) of wheat, rice, dates or other such foodstuffs eaten in her country. The expiation should not be paid in cash... read more here.