Is it permissible for a fisherman to dive into the sea while fasting?

Question: I am a fisherman and sometimes my work requires that I dive during the day in Ramadaan. Is it permissible for a fasting person to dive? If I dive, am I considered sinful? Please tell me the ruling on that, may Allaah reward you.

Answer: It is permissible for a fisherman to dive into the sea, provided that he does not allow water to enter his stomach... read more here.

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The fasting person swimming in the river or the sea

Question: Is it permissible for a fasting person to swim in the river or the like?

Answer: It is permissible for the fasting person to swim provided that no water enters their stomach... read more here.

Madmadah for the fasting person

Question: I was pregnant and the weather was very hot during Ramadaan. My mouth became extremely dry, so I did Madmadah (rinsing the mouth) with cold water to moisten my mouth and lips but I was keen lest any water should enter my stomach. Am I sinful? Should I offer a Kaffaarah (expiation) for that?

Answer: According to what you have said, there is no sin on you and you do not need to make up for that day in which you did Madmadah with water because this does not invalidate one’s Sawm (Fast)... read more here.

Overdoing Madmadah due to extreme thirst trying to let some water enter the stomach

Question: A woman was grazing sheep in Ramadaan and she overdid Madmadah (rinsing the mouth) due to extreme thirst, trying to let some water enter her stomach. If she was aware that this action is Makrooh (disliked), what is the ruling? Is it Waajib (obligatory) on her to make up for those days? 

Moreover, one day she performed after-menstruation Ghusl (full ritual bath) during Ramadaan and she discharged a drop of blood the next day. This occurred while she was away from home at one occasion, and when bleeding ceased that night, she did not perform Ghusl. Rather, she went back and completed her Sawm. What is the ruling on that? Is it Waajib on her to make up for the remaining days of the month, i.e., the days on which she observed Sawm during her menstruation taking into account that she does not remember the number of those days? We hope you will explain the ruling on that?

Answer: First, if the woman in question overdid Madmadah to the extent that the water entered into her stomach, then it is Waajib on her to make up for that day... read more here.

When I first began to fast, I broke my Sawm for one day

Question: I started observing Sawm (Fast) when I was fourteen years old, but in my first year of Sawm, I remember that I had broken my Sawm some days without a lawful excuse. I cannot remember their number now, as do other women who experienced the same problem. I ask Your Eminence to explain the ruling on that? Is it Waajib (obligatory) on me to make up for the missed days, being aware of the fact that many years passed and I did not make up for them? If so, is it Waajib on me to make up for the whole month, as I do not remember the number of days?

Answer: It is Waajib on you to make up for the missed days of Sawm and you should offer Tawbah (repentance to Allaah) and Istighfaar (seeking forgiveness from Allaah). As for the number of the missed days, you should do your best to remember their number as far as you know... read more here.

Ruling on those who listen to obscene speech while observing Sawm

Question: What is the ruling on those who listen to obscene speech while observing Sawm (Fast)?

Answer: If a fasting person has some abuse hurled at them, they are to reply: “I am fasting.” It was related by Al-Bukhaaree in his Saheeh (Authentic Hadeeth Book), vol. 2, p. 228 on the authority of Aboo Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) stated... read more here.

Watching a pornographic movie during the day in Ramadaan

Question: I watched pornographic movie during the day in Ramadaan. Is my Sawm (Fast) considered valid or not?

Answer: It is impermissible for Muslims in general to watch immoral movies during Ramadaan or otherwise, but the sin is graver when it is committed in Ramadaan. If the fasting person ejaculates due to sexual arousal, the Sawm is invalid and it is Waajib (obligatory) on him to make up for that day... read more here.

Ruling on stomach acidity which flows from the stomach

Question: What is the ruling on stomach acidity which flows from the stomach into the mouth during Sawm (Fast), but returns back to one’s stomach?

Answer: It is Waajib (obligatory) on the fasting person to spit out whatever is regurgitated from the stomach. If one intentionally swallows it, the Sawm is considered invalid, as one willingly allows something to enter their stomach... read more here.

A stomach disease causing one to regurgitate food while still a liquid during Ramadaan

Question: I suffer from a stomach disease which causes me to regurgitate my food while still a liquid. This occurred during Ramadaan. Should I make up for these days?

Answer: If the fasting person regurgitates something from the stomach into the mouth, they should spit it, but if they swallowed it intentionally, the Sawm (Fast) is invalid. However, if one swallows it unintentionally, the Sawm is valid... read more here.

Does applying hemorrhoid ointment invalidate one’s Sawm?

Question: Is it permissible to apply hemorrhoid ointment, whether internally or externally, in Ramadaan? If not, must I make up for that day?

Answer: Applying hemorrhoids ointment does not invalidate one’s Sawm (Fast)... read more here.

If there remains a trace of blood in one’s mouth, does this invalidate one’s Sawm?

Question: My mouth bleeds during Sawm (Fast), especially after waking up. At time of Madmadah (rinsing the mouth) during Salaah (Prayer) times, the color of the blood becomes light red, and sometimes turns yellow on rinsing twice or thrice. How can I swallow my saliva, taking into account that bleeding may continue for a while? What is the ruling on swallowing the yellowish liquid that does not taste as blood?I consulted a doctor who prescribed medication for me but it was in vain.

Answer: If the case is as you have mentioned, do your best to get rid of the blood in the saliva through Madmadah. Additionally, be careful not to swallow this blood or the slight yellowish liquid in your saliva, Therefore, there is nothing wrong in that and your Sawm is valid In-shaa’ Allaah (if Allaah wills)... read more here.

Gums inflammation and bleeding after waking up during Sawm

Question: I suffer from gums inflammation, resulting in bleeding while talking, eating, drinking water, or even after waking up. Unintentionally, I swallow this blood that is mixed with saliva, being aware of the fact that swallowing one’s saliva is inevitable. I have been suffering from this condition for five years, despite my frequent visits to the doctor. What is the ruling on this and the previous months of Sawm (Fast)?

Answer: If the blood enters your throat unintentionally while you observe Sawm, then there is no blame on you... read more here.

Blood coming out of one’s gum or nose during Sawm

Question: Does having nosebleed or a tooth extraction require making up one’s Sawm (Fast) for that day? If one has a tooth extracted at night after Iftaar (breaking the Fast) and it bleeds the next day, does this blood invalidate one’s Sawm?

Answer: If a fasting person is wounded, or extracts a tooth and there is some bleeding as a result, the Sawm is valid. However, one must spit out the blood out of their mouth and not let it enter into the throat... read more here.

The bleeding from a wound during Ramadaan

Question: During the blessed Ramadaan, I cut my chin while shaving and there was some slight bleeding. What is the ruling?

Answer: This bleeding from a wound does not invalidate one’s Sawm (Fast) because it occurred unintentionally... read more here.

Breaking Sawm deliberately due to feeling extreme thirst

Question: When I was fifteen years old, i.e., after puberty, I broke my Sawm (Fast) on two or three days in Ramadaan because I felt thirsty, not being aware of the great sin in breaking one’s Sawm intentionally. I have not made up for those days until now, though I am now fifty. I am deeply regretful and ask Your Eminence: Do I have to make up for the missed days or what should I do?

Answer: It is Waajib (obligatory) on this woman to make up for the missed days of Ramadaan since the age of puberty and give Kaffaarah (expiation) to the needy for every day, i.e., 1/2 Saa` (1 Saa` = 3 kg. Approx.) of dates, or barley, or similar staple food of your country, due to her unexcused delay in making up for the missed days until the following Ramadaan came... read more here.

Blood coming out of one’s gum during Wudoo’

Question: While observing Sawm (Fast), I notice that my gum bleeds, especially while performing Wudoo’ (ablution). I wait until the bleeding stops and then I perform Salaah (Prayer); however, my gums bleed again while performing Salaah and the blood leaves a bitter taste in my mouth. Is it Waajib (obligatory) on me to make up for that day?

Answer: If your gums bleed while observing Sawm, you have to spit it out of your mouth. However, if it goes into your throat unintentionally, there is no blame on you and your Sawm is valid. However, if you intentionally swallow the blood that enters your throat, it is Waajib on you to make up for that day... read more here.

Nosebleeding during Sawm

Question: I suffer from nosebleed, especially in hot weather, and sometimes during Istinshaq (sniffing water into the nose and then expelling it) for Wudoo’ (ablution), so I have to raise my head upwards and the blood goes into my stomach. Is this considered Haraam (prohibited)? Does the sacred Aayah (Qur’aanic verse): Forbidden to you (for food) are: Al-Maytah (the dead animals – cattle – beast not slaughtered), blood, the flesh of swine apply to me? Is my Sawm (Fast) valid?

Answer: The blood flowing down from your nose into your throat due to nosebleed or the like is involuntary; thus, there is no sin, but you should try to get rid of it through your mouth as much as you can... read more here.

Does donating blood during the daytime in Ramadaan invalidate Sawm?

Question: Blood donation during the blessed month of Ramadaan.

A- Does donating blood during the daytime in Ramadaan invalidate Sawm (Fast), particularly if we know that giving blood does not affect the fasting person and one can go on with daily life very normally?

B- Does donating blood during the daytime in Ramadaan invalidate Sawm if such donation causes unconsciousness? Cases of unconsciousness rarely occur and are caused by lack of blood to the brain. Thus, the legs of the donor should be raised and the head should be kept down until the donor regains consciousness without any negative side effects; however, these are very normal cases.

C- There is another type of blood donation, which is to donate some of the blood components and return the unneeded components to the body of the donor. This is a new method called APHERESIS, where a high-tech device draws a limited amount of blood from the donor and then immediately separates the blood components from one another and retains the needed components, such as plasma or platelets, while the red and white blood cells and other cells are returned to the body of the donor with the addition of a chemical substance to the amount returned to the donor. This chemical substance prevents blood clots because it is transfused with the blood cells into the body of the donor as mentioned. This process repeats itself from four to five times during a period of about one hour, during which the donor rests on the device until the process is completed, the needed amount of blood cells is drawn, and the remainder is returned to the donor.

Does this type of blood donation break the Sawm of a Muslim, knowing that this technique is less taxing on the body of the donorthan the regular method?

Answer: Blood donation breaks Sawm because it is similar to cupping. The Prophet (peace be upon him) is authentically reported to have said: The cupper and the cupped have broken their Sawm. The same ruling applies to the person who receives the blood transfusion, as this will break their Sawm... read more here.

A fasting person extracting a tooth

Question: Is it permissible for a fasting person to have their molar or tooth pulled out?

Answer: It is permissible for a fasting person to have their tooth pulled out, but it is preferable to do this at night. However, there is nothing wrong in this if done during the day. But the person should be cautious not to let any blood spill from his mouth into his stomach... read more here.

Breaking Sawm on the part of a physician for treating his patients

Question: A- Is it permissible for doctors under normal circumstances to break their Sawm (Fast) if they feel exhausted by work? What is the ruling if they conduct surgical operations, some of which take a long time? Does the ruling differ if it is an emergency case?

B- Is it permissible for patients to break their Sawm because of toothache?

Answer: It is not permissible for doctors to break their Sawm to treat patients, unless the case of the patient is so serious that it requires the treating doctor to break Sawm. In this case, it is permissible for the doctor to break their Sawm; for it is done to save a person’s life... read more here.

A fasting person uses mouth freshener spray

Question: There is a breath-freshening spray in the markets; when sprayed in the mouth, it may be condensed into liquid. Is it permissible for a fasting person to use it to remove bad breath?

Answer: It is permissible for a fasting person to use a breath-freshening spray if it is only air, but if it contains any kind of liquid or melted materials, one must expel such things from the mouth... read more here.

Blood coming out of one’s body while fasting

Question: What is the amount of bleeding caused by Hijaamah (cupping) which invalidates a person’s Sawm (Fast)? Does a person’s Sawm become invalid if they bleed extensively during performance of an oral surgical operation?

Answer: Hijaamah invalidates Sawm according to the correct opinion maintained by scholars. This is based on the Hadith which reads: A man who cups or gets himself cupped will have their Sawm broken. The same applies to withdrawing a large amount of blood from the fasting person. However, Sawm will continue to be valid if blood is emitted because of a surgical operation. This is because emission of blood in this case is not out of the patient’s own will... read more here.

If the gum of the fasting person bleeds and he swallows the blood

Question: If a man’s gum bleeds because of a disease or due to pulling out a tooth and the fasting person swallows the blood, then what is the ruling on this regard?

Answer: If the gum of the fasting person bleeds because of treatment, then it is an obligation upon him to spit it out of his mouth, and if some of this blood goes into his throat unwillingly, then there is no blame on him... read more here.

Treating the teeth during the daytime of Ramadaan for training the dentistry students

Question: If it is preferable for a dental patient to delay treatment until nighttime, then dentistry students will not find patients to practice on during the daytime of Ramadaan, because the study is only during the daytime. If this is the case, is it considered a justification for the dental patient to accept treatment during the daytime in spite of the possibility of swallowing blood or water or taking a shot of anesthesia for treatment?

Answer: If the purpose of teeth treatment during the daytime of Ramadaan is only for practicing dentistry without the patient’s need for this treatment, then in order to be on the safe side, dental treatment should better be avoided during the daytime, and the dental practice should be delayed until after Ramadaan in order to protect the Sawm (Fast)... read more here.

A fasting person needs to treat their teeth during Sawm

Question: The dentist uses some substances which the patient can feel their taste or smell. Does the presence of their taste or smell in the mouth affect Sawm (Fast), taking into consideration the fact that the patient can delay the treatment until night or even until after Ramadaan?

Answer: If a fasting person needs to treat their teeth during Sawm, there is nothing wrong with doing this, but they need to be very careful of any medication or its residue going into their throat. However, if something goes unintentionally into their throat, there is no blame on them... read more here.

Extracting a tooth from a fasting person

Question: Does bleeding caused by extraction of a tooth invalidate Sawm (Fast), given the fact that the patient can postpone the treatment until nightfall or even until after Ramadaan? Is there any sin on the dentist for treating the patient’s teeth during the daytime in Ramadaan? Is it more proper to postpone the medical treatment?

Answer: It is permissible for a fasting person to have their molar tooth extracted. However, they should avoid swallowing any fluids caused by the extraction. There is no blame on the dentist for carrying out the treatment in this case... read more here.

The dentist using water to cool the teeth of the fasting patient while bleaching them

Question: The dentist uses water to cool the teeth of the patient while bleaching them. Does the patient’s unintentional swallowing of this water affect Sawm (Fast)? Please taking into consideration that one can delay the treatment until night or even until after Ramadaan.

Answer: There is no harm in putting water in the mouth of a fasting person for the sake of treatment and other purposes, on the condition that one does not intentionally swallow it. If some of this water goes unwillingly into the patient’s throat, there is no blame on them. However, delaying the treatment until night or until after Ramadaan keeps one on the safe side... read more here.

Giving the fasting person injection of non-nutritional elements

Question: A dentist may sometimes need to give intravenous or intramuscular injections of non-nutritious substance to a patient. Does this invalidate the Sawm (Fast) of the patient, bearing in mind that they can postpone the injection until nightfall or until after Ramadaan?

Answer: There is nothing wrong with injecting a fasting person with a non-nutritious substance if they are in need of it to cure a disease. However, it is better to postpone the injection until nightfall to be on the safe side... read more here.

Ruling on a shot in the mouth for the sake of local anesthetization while fasting

Question: The dentist has to give the patient a shot in the mouthfor local anesthetization, which does not contain any nutritional elements. Does this affect Sawm (Fast), taking into consideration that the patient can delay the treatment until night or even until after Ramadaan?

Answer: There is no harm in giving a fasting person a shot in the mouth or in another organ of the body for local anesthetization in order to receive treatment, because this shot does not contain any nutritional elements... read more here.

Dental dust entering the nose of the fasting person

Question: Sometimes a dentist, their assistant, or a dentistry student has to use gypsum which releases dust. Does inhaling this dust invalidate their Sawm (Fast)?

Answer: It is not permissible for a fasting person to deliberately inhale dust. However, if some dust involuntarily reaches the throat, there is no problem... read more here.

Using toothpaste and mouthwash which include medications

Question: Toothpaste contains some sugar ingredients which a person tastes while using it, keeping in mind that the normal taste of food takes place by the dissolution of the food within the saliva, and then its penetration to the taste receptors. Accordingly, if the tasted matter dissolves within the saliva then, most probably, no one can avoid swallowing it.

A- Is it permissible for a fasting person to use toothpaste, keeping in mind that they can use the toothbrush only?

B- What is the ruling on using mouthwash?

C- It was reported through a good chain of transmission from Ibn ‘Abbass (Al-Irwaa’, p. 937) that he (may Allaah be pleased with him) did not see any harm in tasting honey, butter, and similar foods and then spitting it out while one is observing Sawm (Fast). This view was also reported from some Salaf (righteous predecessors). Thus, after knowing the way in which food is tasted, what is the ruling on tasting food by a fasting person

Answer: There is no harm in using toothpaste during Sawm; however, one should spit out what has been dissolved of the toothpaste in the mouth; and if something from it goes unintentionally into the throat, it will not affect Sawm... read more here.

Does Nasal drops affect one’s sawm during Ramadaan?

Question: A woman used nose drops during the daytime in Ramadaan because she could not breathe through her nose without it. She used it for a considerable number of days throughout three or four Ramadaans; she does not remember the number exactly. However, she knew that using these drops during the day in Ramadaan breaks the Sawm (Fast) if the drops reach the throat, and at times she felt the bitterness of the drops in her throat. Is her Sawm invalidated? What is required of her regarding observing Sawm or feeding Miskeens (needy people)?

Answer: If a fasting person must use nose drops, there is nothing wrong with this. Their Sawm remains valid unless they find the taste of drops in their throat. In this case, the Sawm is invalidated and one must make up for that day if its Sawm is obligatory... read more here.

Using nose drops by a Muslim while observing Sawm during Ramadaan

Question: Is it permissible for a Muslim to use nose drops while observing Sawm (Fast) during Ramadaan?

Answer: It is not permissible to use nose drops during the daytime in Ramadaan, as the nose has an opening to the stomach, and so some of the drops that are put into the nose will enter the stomach, and so it will invalidate one’s Sawm... read more here.

Vomiting during Sawm

Question: On the first day of Ramadaan and after offering the Fajr (Dawn) Prayer, I vomited unwillingly; do nausea and vomiting affect my Sawm (Fast)? I hope Your Eminence would answer me. May Allaah protect and take care of you. Al-salaamu `alaykum wa rahmatullaah wa barakaatuh (May Allaah’s Peace, Mercy, and Blessings be upon you).

Answer: If you vomit during the daytime in Ramadaan unwillingly, your Sawm is valid and you do not have to make up for that day. It was related by Aboo Daawood, Al-Tirmithee, and others on the authority of Aboo Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) said: Anyone who has a sudden attack of vomiting while fasting is not required to make it up, but anyone who vomits intentionally must make it up.... read more here.

Swallowing phlegm while fasting

Question: During Sawm (Fast), I had phlegm in my throat and I swallowed it; does this invalidate Sawm?

Answer: If the phlegm does not reach the mouth, there is nothing wrong if the fasting person swallows it... read more here.

Rinsing one’s mouth while observing Sawm

Question: One night in Ramadaan, I woke up to have my Suhoor (pre-dawn meal before the Fast) and after finishing it, I had a flavored drink. As the dawn had not yet come, I said I would wait for a while then go to the Masjid (mosque) to offer Salaah (Prayer), intending to clean my mouth in the Masjid preparing for Sawm (Fast) before the Athaan (call to Prayer) was pronounced. However, while still waiting, I overslept and only woke up after the Fajr (Dawn) Prayer was due. When I woke up, I found the taste of the flavored drink was still in my throat, so I spat it out and then washed my mouth; is my Sawm on this day valid? If not, what should I do?

Answer: Having the remains of food in between the teeth after the break of dawn falls under either one of two cases:

1- If there is only a small amount of food remaining in the mouth that cannot be spat, it does not affect the validity of the Sawm, even if it reached the person’s throat, for this is unavoidable… read more here.

Feeling the taste of food after beginning Sawm

Question: One day during Ramadaan I had some teaat Suhoor (pre-dawn meal before the Fast). I slept without washing my mouth. When I woke up, the taste of tea was still in my mouth. Do I have to make up for that day?

Answer: Your feeling of the taste of tea after waking up in the morning does not invalidate your Sawm (Fast), as you drank the tea before the break of the second dawn. Therefore, your Sawm is valid and you are not required to make up for that day... read more here.

The fasting person who swallows dust with his saliva while performing Tayammum

Question: What is the ruling on the fasting person who swallows dust while performing Tayammum (dry ablution with clean earth)?

Answer: The Sawm (Fast) remains valid as long as they do not swallow the dust deliberately. This is based on the general meaning of the Hadeeths which excuse unintentional actions committed by individuals of the Muslim Ummah (nation based on creed) as well as actions which they do under duress. The same applies to swallowing one’s saliva after performing Wudoo’ (ablution)... read more here.

Breaking Fast forgetfully during the daytime in Ramadaan

Question: What is the ruling on breaking the Fast forgetfully during the daytime in Ramadaan?

Answer: Anyone who unintentionally breaks his Fast during the daytime in Ramadaan should complete his Fast, and there is nothing wrong with him. Allaah (Exalted be He) says: Our Lord! Punish us not if we forget or fall into error The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: If anyone eats or drinks forgetfully while fasting, he should complete his Sawm, for it was Allaah (Exalted be He) Who fed him and gave him drink. (Agreed upon by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim)... read more here.

What is the ruling on the Sawm of a woman washed her eyes to remove dust?

Question: A woman got some dust in her eyes, so she washed her eyes with water; what is the ruling on her Sawm (Fast)?

Answer: If the reality is as you mentioned, the woman’s Sawm is valid and washing dust from the eyes does not affect her Sawm... read more here.

Breaking one’s fast deliberately during Ramadaan

Question: What is the evidence that the person who breaks their fast during the daytime in Ramadaan should offer Kaffaarah (expiation) by fasting for sixty consecutive days?

Answer: According to the correct scholarly opinion, anyone who breaks their fast intentionally on a day in Ramadaan without a Shar`ee (Islaamically lawful) excuse should repent to Allaah (Exalted be He) and make up for this day. Fasting for sixty days is concerned with the Kaffaarah for having sexual intercourse during the daytime in Ramadaan, particularly that there is a Saheeh (authentic) Hadeeth reported in this regard... read more here.

Placing a patch on the arm which helps the smoker give up smoking

Question: I want to stop smoking and I ask Allaah to help me achieve this goal. My question is:

There is a patch placed on the arm which helps the smoker to get over the difficulty of stopping smoking. Is it allowed to use this patch during Ramadaan, taking into consideration that this patch automatically produces the nicotine substance whenever the body needs it? Please provide me with the answer, may Allaah reward you well.

Answer: We ask Allaah to guide you to repent from the habit of smoking and to help you stop, since it is extremely harmful and has no good at all. As for your question with regard to the permissibility of using a patch which is stuck to the arm and helps you stop smoking, and whether is it permissible for you to use it during Ramadaan while you are fasting or not, our answer is that it is not permissible for you to use that patch, since we have asked the specialists about this patch and they said that it provides the body with nicotine that reaches the blood... read more here.

Smelling the smoke of fire of the burning wood during the daytime of Ramadaan

Question: What is the ruling on the smoke of the fire when wood or similar materials get burned during a day of Ramadaan? Does this smoke break the Sawm (Fast) of the fasting person if he smells it or not?

Answer: If the smoke goes into his throat unwillingly, then it does not affect his Sawm... read more here.

Smelling tobacco during Sawm

Question: Some of my co-workers smoke while I am observing Sawm (Fast) the six days of Shawwaal; does the smell of smoking invalidate Sawm? Please note that I do not smoke, all praise be to Allaah.

Answer: Someone’s Sawm is not invalidated if dust or smoke gets into their throat, for this is beyond their control. However, you should advise the people who smoke to give up and repent from smoking, because it is Haraam (prohibited) and a sin... read more here.

Breaking Sawm purposefully on a day of Ramadaan

Question: What is the ruling on breaking one’s Sawm (Fast) in Ramadaan whether with or without a legal excuse?

Answer: Anyone who breaks Sawm in Ramadaan without a valid excuse is to be considered a sinner, and has to make up for it. However, if a person breaks his Sawm by having sexual intercourse during the daytime in Ramadaan, he should pay the Kaffaarah (expiation) which is to emancipate a believing slave... read more here.

Breaking Sawm before sunset

Question: What is the ruling on breaking one’s Sawm (Fast) a short time ahead of sunset? Will this Sawm be counted?

Answer: The time of Sawm begins at the break of the second dawn and lasts until sunset. If someone observing Sawm eats before sunset, their Sawm is invalidated and they should make up for it if the Sawm is Waajib (obligatory), but if the Sawm is Nafilah (supererogatory), there is no blame on them for what they did, and they do not have to make up for it... read more here.

Breaking Sawm when the sun sets without waiting for the Athaan of the Maghrib Salaah

Question: Some fasting people break their Sawm (Fast) when the sun sets without waiting for the Athaan (call to Prayer) of the Maghrib (Sunset) Prayer. What is the ruling on this?

Answer: Iftar (breaking the Fast) is only permitted after making sure that the sun has set. Allaah (Exalted be He) says: …then complete your Sawm (fast) till the nightfall There are many Hadeeths reported from the Prophet (peace be upon him) in this regard, such as his saying... read more here.

Breaking fast and negligence in determining its right time

Question: The mu’ath-thin pronounced Athaan (call to Salaah) for Maghrib (Sunset) Prayer at 5:37 P.M. And Madfa` Al-Iftaar (the canon signaling breaking the fast time) was heard at the same time, followed by other mu’ath-thins pronouncing Athaan. The people started breaking their fast. Those mu’ath-thins thought that the time of Maghrib had already started and the sun had set, because it was cloudy, although the official time of Maghrib as set in the calendar and determined by the Department of Astronomy in the University of King Su`ood was at 5:45 P.M. Then Madfa` Al-Iftaar was heard again at this time, and other mu’ath-thins pronounced Athaan, and some people started breaking their fast at that time.

Your Eminence Shaykh, people are confused; some of them believe fast of that day was nullified and must be made up for due to such negligence of determining the right time, since the clock was available and they could know the exact time. Others said that we do not have to make up for this day, and the one who carries this sin and should make up for the day is the one who caused this problem. Therefore, we request Your Eminence to quickly resolve this issue, so that this problem will be settled. May Allaah grant you success and guide your steps on the Straight Path.

Answer: If the case is as you mentioned, then they should make up for that day, because they broke their fast before the due time of breaking fast and due to their negligence in determining the right time... read more here.

Hearing Athaan being proclaimed before its due time and beginning to have Iftaar

Question: A person heard the Athaan (call to Prayer) for Maghrib (Sunset) Prayer according to local time in Cairo, thinking the Athaan was according to the local time in Alexandria, then he had Iftaar (breaking the Fast). What is the ruling on this? May Allaah reward you with the best!

Answer: Hearing Athaan being proclaimed before its due time and beginning to have Iftaar... read more here.

He continued to eat till the Iqaamah for Fajr Prayer was being pronounced

Question: When my mother prepared the Suhoor (pre-dawn meal before the Fast), I overslept then woke up and started eating. After a while, I heard a distant sound and could not discern whether it was Athaan (call to Prayer), Iqaamah (call to start the Prayer), or mere talking. I kept eating and drinking until the nearby Masjid (mosque) pronounced the Iqamah; thereupon, I stopped eating and drinking and took out what I had in my mouth. What is the ruling on my act?

Answer: You have to make up for the day on which you ate and drank while the Iqaamah of the Fajr (Dawn) Prayer was being pronounced, as you ate and drank during daylight while you should have asked and been careful, but you did not. Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) says… read more here.