Question: Is it permissible to study philosophy, logic, and theories that mock Allaah’s Aayaat (Qur’aanic verses)? Is it permissible to attend places that offer these studies or is it included in this Aayah: And it has already been revealed to you in the Book (this Qur’aan) that when you hear the Aayaat of Allaah being denied and mocked at, then sit not with them, until they engage in a talk other than that; (but if you stayed with them) certainly in that case you would be like them.
Answer: If a person is knowledgeable enough and confident in themselves to the extent that they are not afraid that reading these subjects or sitting with their adherents will cause a Fitnah (trial) to their religion… read more here.
Question: Some contemporary religious youths say that most or all those who fall into Shirk (associating others with Allaah in His Divinity or worship) in the Muslim world today are not Mushrikeen (one who associates others with Allaah in worship). They defend them saying that they are either noble scholars who, through Ijtihaad (juristic effort to infer expert legal rulings), come up with views like the permissibility of Istighaathah (beseeching help) from other than Allaah, as did Al-Suyootee, Al-Nabahaanee, and others. Those great scholars will get a double reward if their view is correct and a single reward if their view is wrong. As for ordinary imitating people, they have done the best they can.
Answer: The people who are excused in the case of mistaken inference, are the Mujtahideen (scholars qualified to exercise juristic effort to infer expert legal rulings) in speculative discretionary issues only, and not people who reach erroneous views on issues authentically established by clear scriptural texts, or well known basic principles of the religion… read more here.