Counting on astronomical calculations to decide the beginning and the end of Ramadaan

Question: Is it permissible for a Muslim to count on astronomical calculations to decide the beginning and the end of Sawm (Fast) (in Ramadaan)? Or should we depend on seeing the crescent?

Answer: The Sharee`ah (Islaamic law) is a lenient one; its rulings are generic and comprehensive to both (Human and Jinn) alike, regardless of their ranks; whether they are scholars or illiterate people, rural or urban… read more here.

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People in Africa fasting according to sighting Ramadaan’s crescent in Makkah

Question: Can people living in Africa, fast according to the sighting of the crescent in Makkah ?

Answer: The Council of Senior Scholars in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has issued a decree concerning the question that reads: Firstly, the fact that the new moon appears at different times in different places is a well-established fact; no scholar disputes this… read more here.

The difference of the timing of Muslims’ religious festivals

Question: What is the ruling on the difference of setting the beginning of Muslims’ religious festivals like `Eed-ul-Fitr (the Festival of Breaking the Fast), and `Eed-ul-Adha (the Festival of the Sacrifice)? It is worthy to mention that this results in people fasting a day which is prohibited to fast such as the day of `Eed-ul-Fitr or breaking their fast on a day that should be observed. I need a decisive answer regarding this matter please. If Islaam rejects this difference, how can Muslim festivals be unified?

Answer: Scholars agree that the sighting of the crescent causes differences. However, they held different opinions regardingwhether the difference in sighting the moon matters or not in the beginning and the end of Ramadaan. Some Fuqahaa’ (Muslim jurists) held the opinion that the difference in sighting the moon does matter in the beginning and end of Ramadaan while others see that it does not… read more here.