Each country should begin Sawm upon sighting the new moon

Question: Is it lawful to start fasting Ramadaan in Mayotte Island, Comoros, on a day other than that on which Makkah Al-Mukarramah started fasting or not?

May you, please, cite the evidence for your answer? Also, is it lawful to offer the Prayer of `Eed Al-Ad-haa (the Festival of the Sacrifice) on a day other than that on which the `Eed Day is celebrated in Makkah Al-Mukarramah or not? Please cite the evidence of your answer, especially that in this season, like all previous seasons of fasting, the majority of the people of the Mayotte Islands started fasting on Monday, March 5, 2001 insteadof Tuesday, March 6, 2001, noting that our island is located on the same meridian as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, our sister Muslim Country.

Answer: It is obligatory for Muslims in each country to start and end fasting and to offer the Prayer of `Eed Al-Fitr (the Festival of Breaking the Fast) and the Prayer of `Eed Al-Ad-haa upon sighting the related new moon in their respective countries. Otherwise, they are to calculate the respective month (Sha’baan, Ramadaan, or Thul-Qa`dah) as thirty days. This is because the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Fast when you see it (the new moon), and break your fast when you see it. If the weather is cloudy, calculate it, meaning calculate (the months of Sha’baan or Shawwaal as thirty days). In another wording of this Hadeeth, the second part of the conditional clause reads… read more here.

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Sighting the new moon determines the beginning and end of Islaamic appointed times of rituals

Question: How is the first day of every month determined, and how do the scholars in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia know the number of the days of every Month when preparing the annual lunar calendar

The answer to this question is paramount for us due to huge disagreement on how to determine the first day of the month. This confusion causes some Muslims sometimes to fast one or two days before or after Ramadaan. Some of them celebrate `Eed Al-Ad-haa (the Feast of the Sacrifice) and sacrifice their animals on the Day of `Arafah. The only reason for this confusion is the lack of sound knowledge regarding the method of determining the first day of the month and the number of days in each month. Moreover, the new moon does not clearly appear to us on the first day of the month.

Answer: The beginning and end of Islaamic appointed times of rituals, such as Ramadaan, Hajj (pilgrimage), and other rituals are determined by sighting the new moon with the naked eye. It is not permissible to rely on predetermined calculations and calendars which are made for the next ten years. This ruling is based on Allaah’s (Exalted be He) Saying: They ask you (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) about the new moons. Say: These are signs to mark fixed periods of time for mankind and for the pilgrimage and on the Prophet’s (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) saying: Observe the fast when you see it (the new moon) and break the fast when you see it (the new moon). If the sky is overcast, complete the month of Sha’baan as thirty days. (Related by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim in their two Saheehs).. read more here.

Relying on the calendar for determining Sawm and `Eed

Question: In India, the beginning of Ramadaan and `Eed Al-Fitr (the Festival of Breaking the Fast) are determined based on the annual calendar which is issued by the Indian Parliament; namely, the beginning and the end of Ramadaan are predetermined at the beginning of the year. By the same token, `Eed Al-Ad-haa (the Festival of the Sacrifice) is also predetermined based on the annual calendar, and not based on the Day of `Arafah. Moreover, Muslims in India usually sacrifice their animals after the time other Muslims, especially in Arab states, sacrifice their animals.

Now, our question is: Concerning the fast of Ramadaan, we usually start our fast when we receive a confirmation of the beginning of Ramadaan by calling our families in Saudi Arabia, in Kuwait, or in the Gulf States in general. Our commence of the fast usually occurs before the fast of Muslims in India. Is our fast valid or invalid in this case, taking into consideration that most of the Muslim foreign students in India fast after the new moon is sighted in the Gulf states. Please provide us with a Fatwa on this matter.

Answer: You should observe the fast with Muslims in your country, and it is not permissible to have differences among the residents of the same country in this regard, due to the Prophet’s (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) saying: The beginning of Ramadaan is the day when you begin fasting, the end of Ramadaan is on the day when you end it, and ‘Eed Al-Ad-haa is on the day when you sacrifice. It is noteworthy that the legal confirmation of the beginning of the lunar month is legally established by sighting the new moon with the naked eye or by adopting the means which help the eye sight the new moon. If the new moon can not be sighted, then it is an obligation to complete the month as thirty days. For the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said… read more here.

General Takbeer at `Eed Al-Ad-haa

Question 13:  What is your opinion regarding offering general Takbeer at `Eed Al-Ad-haa? Does it continue until the thirteenth day of Thul-Hijjah? Is there any difference between a person who is performing Hajj and a person who is not?

Answer: One should continue offering general Takbeer until the end of the thirteenth day of Thul-Hijjah. There is no difference in this regard between a person who is performing Hajj and others. Allaah (Exalted be He) says: …and mention the Name of Allaah on appointed days (i.e. 10th, 11th, 12th, and 13th day of Thul-Hijjah) and And remember Allaah during the appointed Days. Al-Bukhaaree reported that Ibn `Abbaas said: “Al-Ayyaam Al-Ma`loomaat (appointed days) are the first ten days of Thul-Hijjah and Al-Ayyaam Al-Ma`doodaat (appointed days) are 11th, 12th and 13th day of Thul-Hijjah.” Al-Bukhaaree also said that Ibn `Umar and Aboo Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with them both) used to go to the market in the first ten days of Thul-Hijjah in order to offer Takbeer. People used to follow their example in offering Takbeer... read more here.