Dividing Bid`ah (innovation in religion) into five categories

Question 158: Please comment on the Hadeeth mentioned below, as it is controversial among the students of knowledge. I would like you to explain it in writing, so that they can all read the explanation and correct this misconception. The Hadeeth states:

Jaabir ibn `Abdullaah (may Allaah be pleased with him) narrated that Muslim, Saheeh, Book on Friday, no. 867; Al-Nasaa’ee, Sunan, Book on the two `Eed Prayers, no. 1578; Aboo Daawood, Sunan, Book on tribute, spoils, and rulership, no. 2954; Ibn Maajah, Sunan, Introduction, no. 45; Ahmad, Musnad, vol. 3, p. 311; and Al-Daarimee, Sunan, Introduction, p. 206.Whenever Allaah’s Messenger (peace he upon him) delivered a Khutbah (sermon), his eyes would become red, his tone loud, and his anger increased as if he were warning against an attacking army, saying: “The enemy is about to strike in the morning and is advancing against you in the evening.” He would also say: “The last Hour and I have been sent like these two”; he would join his forefinger and middle finger; and would further say: “The best of speech is embodied in the Book of Allaah, and the best of guidance is that given by Muhammad (peace be upon him). The most evil affairs are novelties; and every Bid`ah leads to misguidance.” Then, he would say: “I should be dearer to Muslims than themselves. If a person leaves behind property, it will be for their families. If a person dies while in debt or leaves children (in need), the responsibility (of paying their debt and bringing up their children) lies on me.” Narrated by Muslim. It is mentioned in the Hadeeth that every Bid`ah leads to misguidance. I oppose Bid`ah, and I refute it with the authentic Sunnah. Thus, I am asking that you explain this Hadeeth in order to clarify the linguistic and the Shar’ee definition of Bid`ah, so that I might not renounce something which is not a Bid`ah.

Some Fuqahaa’ (Muslim jurists) said that there are five rulings on Bid`ah. Is there any evidence for this? They claim that it may be Waajib (obligatory), Mubaah (permissible), Makrooh (disliked), Mandub (commendable), or Haraam (prohibited). Please, your honor, explain this in detail, as the students of knowledge have greatly disagreed on the meaning of “every Bid`ah leads to misguidance”. They say that the word “every” makes it all-inclusive, unless it is followed by an exception. Aboo Daawood and Al-Tirmidee also narrated a lengthy Hadeeth in which a part of it reads, Hold fast to my Sunnah and the examples of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs who will come after me. Adhere to them and hold to them fast. Avoid novelties (in religion), for every novelty is a Bid`ah, and every Bid`ah leads to misguidance. It is narrated in the exact wording: “every novelty is a Bid`ah”. I hope Your honor that you will settle this problematic issue for me, which no one else has been able to.

Answer: First, this Sharee`ah is fully established by Allaah, and needs no human to complete it, as Allaah states, This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islaam as your religion. (Soorah Al-Maa’idah, 5: 3). 

Second, the fundamental rule on the acts of ‘Ibadah (worship) is that it is Tawqeefiyyah (bound by a religious text and not subject to personal opinion). Whoever claims that an ‘Ibadah is legitimate should provide evidence to support it; otherwise, it is rejected. It is authentically reported that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) stated, Whoever introduces something into this affair of ours which is not of, it will be rejected. In another narration, Whoever performs any act which is not in accordance with our command, it is to be rejected.… read more here.

Believing in Darwins theory (theory of evolution)

Question 157: Some people claim that long ago humans were apes, and then later evolved into the current form. Is this true? Is there evidence for this?

Answer: This claim is not true. The evidence is found in the Quraan’ where Allaah describes the stages of Aadam’s creation, as He states, Verily, the likeness of ‘Eesaa (Jesus) before Allaah is the likeness of Aadam. He created him from dust (Soorah Aal-‘Imraan, 3: 59).This dust was sprinkled with water, until it became sticky clay, as Allaah states, And indeed We created man (Aadam) out of an extract of clay (water and earth). (Soorah Al-Mu’minoon, 23: 12). Allaah also states, Verily, We created them of a sticky clay. (Soorah Al-Saaffaat, 37: 11). Then, it turned into altered mud, as Allaah says, And indeed, We created man from dried (sounding) clay of altered mud. (Soorah Al-Hijr, 15: 26). When it dried, it became clay which resembles that of pottery, as Allaah states, He created man (Adam) from sounding clay like the clay of pottery. (Soorah Al-Rahmaan, 55: 14). Allaah fashioned him as he pleased and breathed into him of His soul, and Allaah stated, And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: “I am going to create a man (Aadam) from dried (sounding) clay of altered mud.… read more here.

32- Description of the relationship between the mind and the soul

Question: Human beings have both minds and souls. Can the soul oppose or agree with the mind? Is there a relationship between both the soul and the mind? Or does each of them operate independently? 

Answer:  The mind and the soul are one entity. The mind thinks, considers and contemplates through the soul. If the soul departs the body, every other thing stops to be. While the soul is in the body, the mind thinks and distinguishes between good and evil, as the mind operates through the soul. Therefore, one can think, consider, plan, and decide as long as his soul resides in his body. When it is gone, one cannot think anymore… read more here.

29- No human being existed before Aadam

Question: Brother M. M. Y. from Al-Judeidah district, the Arab Republic of Yemen, asks: Some people claim that before Aadam there existed a primitive human species, but they then disappeared. Is this correct?

Answer: This claim is a groundless and meaningless superstition because no human being ever existed before Aadam (peace be upon him)… read more here.

28- The claim that man descended from apes is false (Darwinism)

Question: I have read a lot about the theory that humans evolved from an apelike ancestor. The theory proposes that humans went through several stages until they developed into the modern man. Is this true? Are the organs of apes similar to those of humans? Please advise us, may Allaah reward you with the best!

Answer: This statement is false, unacceptable, and contradictory to the Book of Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He), the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) as well as the Ijmaa` (consensus) of the Salaf (righteous predecessors). This theory which was introduced by Darwin is proven to be a lie, for modern humans originated from a human ancestry, not from an ape or anything else. Allaah created our father Adam (peace be upon him) from clay….read more here.