Explaining the meaning of Allaah’s Ma`iyyah with His creature

Question: I have read many books on Tawheed (belief in the Oneness of Allaah / monotheism). Would you recommend a book for us to read on the Names and Attributes of Allaah and the creed of Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah (adherents to the Sunnah and the Muslim mainstream) in this respect? Is it religiously acceptable to say: “Allaahu ma`a Khalqeehee bi `Ilmih wa bi Qudratih wa bi Iradtih [Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) is with His Creation by His Knowledge, Power, and Will]”, as the preposition letter ‘Bi’ (Lit. by) in Arabic entails extreme closeness? Please direct us regarding this matter!

Answer: The Qur’aan is the best and noblest Book that clarifies the Names and Attributes of Allaah and acknowledges His Rights on His Servants. It is the last and final Revelation of Allaah. It is the greatest, the most honorable, the best, and the most reliable Book for truth seekers. Verily, true guidance, clear proofs, and all goodness lie in the Qur’an.The authentic Hadeeths of the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him), which were compiled and recorded in the Two Saheeh (authentic) Books of Hadeeth (i.e. Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim) and the Sunan (Hadeeth compilations classified by jurisprudential themes) are also a great reference on this topic. Besides this, you may refer to books compiled by reliable scholars, which contain the sayings of the Salaf (righteous predecessors), such as the books written by the renowned Imams, such as Al-Muwatta’ by Imaam Maalik, Al-Musnad by Imam Ahmad, and other books composed by distinguished scholars. These books relate the authentic Hadeeths and the Athar (narrations from the Companions) of the Salaf. You may also refer to books on the Names and Attributes of Allaah written by the followers of these scholars such as... read more here.

Ruling on believing that “Allaah is everywhere”

Question: A questioner from Sudan asks: “Your Eminence, Shaykh, it is known that believing in Allaah’s Names, and Attributes, like Istiwaa’ (Allaah’s rising over the Throne in a manner that befits Him), is one of the conditions of sound Islaamic `Aqeedah (creed), but there are some people in some countries who believe that “Allaah is everywhere”. Can you give them a word of advice? Also, are they rendered Kaafirs (disbelievers) if they die holding such belief? Please provide us with a detailed Fatwaa’ (legal opinion issued by a qualified Muslim scholar)! May Allaah reward you well!

Answer: This issue is of great importance. Muslims should pay much attention to it. It is elaborated, and made clear by Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) in the Noble Qur’an that one should believe in Allaah’s being in the heavens, and in Istiwaa’ (Allaah’s rising over the Throne in a manner that befits Him). There are seven Aayaat (Qur’aanic verses) that give evidence for Allaah’s (Glorified and Exalted be He) Istiwaa’ in a manner which befits His Majesty and Greatness: this manner does not resemble any of His Creatures. Allaah says in Soorah Al-‘A`raaf: Indeed your Lord is Allaah, Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days, and then He rose over (Istawaa’) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty). He brings the night as a cover over the day, seeking it rapidly, and (He created) the sun, the moon, the stars subjected to His Command. Surely, His is the Creation and Commandment. Blessed is Allaah, the Lord of the ‘Alamîn (mankind, jinn and all that exists)! In Soorah Taahaa, Allaah (Exalted be He) says: The Most Gracious (Allaah) rose over (Istawaa’ the (Mighty) Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty). So, Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah (adherents to the Sunnah and the Muslim mainstream) believe in what is mentioned in these Aayaat, namely, Allaah’s Istiwaa’ and loftiness in a manner that befits His Majesty, and Greatness... read more here.

Replying to question “where is Allaah”?

Question: When asked where Allaah is, some say that He is everywhere. What is the Shar`ee (Islaamically lawful) correct reply to this question?

Answer: It is Waajib (obligatory) upon whomever is asked where Allaah is to give the same reply which the bondmaid gave to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) when he asked her this question. A man who wanted to free his bondmaid brought her to the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him).The Prophet (peace be upon him) asked her: “Where is Allaah?” She said: “In the heavens” He asked, “Who am I?” She said, “The Messenger of Allaah.” He then said to her master: “Set her free, for she is a Mu’minah (female believer) .” Therefore, it is Waajib upon whoever is asked where Allaah is to say, “Allaah is in the Heavens above the `Arsh (Allaah’s Throne).” Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) says: Do you feel secure that He, Who is over the heaven (Allaah) And: Or do you feel secure that He, Who is over the heaven (Allaah) Allaah is high above His `Arsh. He (Glorified and Exalted be He) says read more here.

Doctrine of Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah regarding Allaah’s Attribute of Highness

Question: A questioner from Al-Hawtah asks: What is the doctrine of Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah (adherents to the Sunnah and the Muslim mainstream) regarding Allaah’s Attribute of `Uluw (Highness)?

Answer: Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah believe in Allaah’s Attribute of Highness. They believe that Allaah (Glorified be He) rose over His Throne and is high above all His creation. Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) states: So the judgement is only with Allaah, the Most High, the Most Great! , …and He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them. And He is the Most High, the Most Great. and: Indeed, your Lord is Allaah, Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days, and then He rose over (Istawaa’) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty). He (Glorified be He) states: The Most Gracious (Allaah) rose over (Istawaa’) the (Mighty) Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty). and: To Him ascend (all) the goodly words, and the righteous deeds exalt it (i.e. the goodly words are not accepted by Allaah unless and until they are followed by good deeds) in addition to other Aayaat (Qur’anic verses) to the same effect. Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah firmly believe that Allaah rose over His Throne and is exalted above His creation. Al-hamdu lillaah [All praise is due to Allaah], there is no difference of opinion between them in this regard.

Question: A questioner from Chad asks: Where is Allaah? Is He over His `Arsh (Throne) or is He everywhere? What is the ruling on one who claims that Allaah is everywhere?

AnswerAllaah (Exalted be He) rose over His `Arsh and is high above His creation, according to Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah. All the messengers (peace be upon them) taught that Allaah rose over His `Arsh and is above all the Creation. Allaah (Exalted be He) states: The Most Gracious (Allaah) rose over (Istawâ) the (Mighty) Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty). , Do you feel secure that He, Who is over the heaven (Allaah) , To Him ascend (all) the goodly words, and the righteous deeds exalt it (i.e. the goodly words are not accepted by Allaah unless and until they are followed by good deeds) and: The angels and the Rooh [Jibrîl (Gabriel)] ascend to Him in a Day the measure whereof is fifty thousand years. Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) states: Indeed, your Lord is Allaah, Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days, and then He rose over (Istawaa’) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty). Allaah mentioned in seven Aayaat that He (Exalted be He) is over the Throne. He rose over it in a manner befitting His Majesty as He is not like any of His creation in terms of Istiwsa’ (Allash’s rising over the Throne in a manner that befits Him) or in any of His Attributes. Allaah (Exalted be He) states: There is nothing like Him; and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer. He (Exalted be He) also… read more here.

The meaning of Allaah’s `Arsh

Question: What is the meaning of Allaah’s `Arsh (Allaah’s Throne)?

Answer: According to Muslim scholars, and the Arabic language, `Arsh means a throne or a throne belonging to a king. The `Arsh of Allaah is an extremely large and great Throne; it is the greatest thing created by Allaah. It has four legs, and is carried by Angles. Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) is above the `Arsh as He (Glorified and Exalted be He) says about Himself: The Most Gracious (Allaah) rose over (Istawaa’) the (Mighty) Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty). And: Indeed, your Lord is Allaah, Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days, and then He rose over (Istawaa’) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty). Thus, it is a significantly large `Arsh; none knows how great the size of its magnificence is except Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) Who created it (but we are told by the Prophet that it is very large). This `Arsh is like a dome stretching over the entire universe; it is the ceiling of the whole universe. It is also the ceiling of Paradise; nothing is above it except Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He). Thus, `Arsh in Arabic is a very large throne, and the thrones of kings are called `Arsh. It is mentioned in the Qur’aan that the hoopoe told Sulaymaan (Solomon) that Bilqees (the Queen of Sabaa [or Sheebaa] in Yemen, who ruled during the lifetime of Prophet Sulaymaan. She and her people were sun worshippers): …and she has a great throne. Yet, Allaah’s `Arsh is unique; there is no similarity between Allaah’s `Arsh and those of His Creatures. In general, we know from Arabic that `Arsh is a generic name standing for a throne. However, none knows the essence, nature, substance, or greatness of Allaah’s `Arsh except Allaah Himself (Glorified and Exalted be He). Yet, authentic Hadeeths of the Prophet (peace be upon him) are our authority in this matter... read more here.