Does forgetting Salaah affect the validity of Sawm?

Question: What is the ruling on someone who observes Sawm (Fast) without offering the previous day’s Salaah (Prayer) of `Ishaa’ (Night) and Taraaweeh (special supererogatory night Prayer in Ramadaan) out of forgetfulness?

Answer: The Sawm is valid and the forgotten Salaah must be made up for. It is not obligatory to make up for the missed Taraaweeh because it is a supererogatory Salaah. If the person offers supererogatory Salaah during the day according to their ability, this will be better..read more here.

Is it permissible for someone working in a bakery not to observe Sawm in Ramadaan?

Question: I request from Your Eminence a Fatwaa (legal opinion issued by a qualified Muslim scholar) on Iftaar (breaking the Fast) in Ramadaan. I work in a bakery in front of the oven and I cannot bear the extreme heat of the fire. I observed Sawm (Fast) last year because I did not work in Ramadaan. In-shaa’-Allaah (if Allaah wills), I must observe Sawm this year.

Answer: You must observe Sawm. Allaah (Exalted be He) states: So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadaan i.e. is present at his home), he must observe Sawm (fasts) that month..read more here.

When intending to break Sawm even without eating, Sawm is considered broken

Question: If I intended to break Sawm (Fast) in Ramadaan and I did not do so, have I to make up for that day which I intended to break Sawm?

Answer: If you were observing Sawm and then intended to break Sawm, your Sawm is considered broken whether you did anything that breaks Sawm or not, because you nullified the intention of Sawm. You must make up for that day if its Sawm is Waajib (obligatory) or fulfillment of a vow..read more here.

Nullifying the intention of sawm

Question: If there must be intention before any saying, deed, activity, or thought: What is the ruling on rejecting intention or nullifying it by saying, for example: I nullify my Sawm (Fast)?

Answer: If someone intends to retract the intention of a Waajib (obligatory) Sawm, Sawm becomes nullified. The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated: The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions. Hence, if the intention is nullified, the deed – which is Sawm in this question – is consequently nullified..read more here.

Having the intention of Sawm

Question: Is it obligatory to have intention for Sawm (Fast) each night of Ramadaan? Does it suffice to make one intention for Sawm for the entire month of Ramadaan on the last night of Sha`baan?

Answer: One must intend to observe Sawm in every night during Ramadaan. Sawm of each day is a separate `Ibaadah (worship), and having Suhoor (pre-dawn meal before the Fast) is considered intention for Sawm..read more here.

Intending at night to observe Sawm on the next day

Question: If someone intends at night to observe Sawm (Fast) on the next day, but they break Sawm in the morning or any time due to some reason, should they make up for that day because they intended to observe Sawm and did not do so?

Answer: If it is a Waajib (obligatory) Sawm, such as Sawm of a vow or making up for a missed day in Ramadaan, it is impermissible to break Sawm. Breaking an obligatory Sawm without an excuse is a sin, andthey must make up for that day. However, if it is a supererogatory Sawm, it is better to complete Sawm. If Sawm is broken, there is nothing wrong in this and making up for it is not required..read more here.

Intending Sawm in the morning

Question: What is the ruling on someone who intended Sawm (Fast) in the morning after the break of dawn though they have not drunk or eaten anything?

Answer: It is valid to have the intention to observe Sawm on the day if it is a supererogatory Sawm. If Sawm of that day is Waajib (obligatory), it is invalid if there is no intention before dawn. The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated: Whoever does not determine to fast by night has not fasted..read more here.

Is the Athaan considered the time for abstaining from all that breaks Sawm?

Question: Is the Athaan (call to Prayer) considered the time for abstaining from all that breaks Sawm (Fast)? What is the ruling on the one who drinks after hearing the Athaan though Allaah (Exalted be He) states: …and eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night)

Answer: If the Athaan is for the break of dawn, it is impermissible to eat or drink after it. However, if it is called before dawn, it is permissible to eat and drink after it because the evidence in this regard is the Aayah (Qur’aanic verse) in which Allaah (Exalted be He) states..read more here.

Not having the intention to observe Sawm until 07:00 am on the first day of Ramadaan

Question: On the first day of Ramadaan, we did not have intention to observe Sawm (Fast) until 07:00 am because we did not know that Wednesday was the start of Ramadaan excepttill the morning. Is our Sawm on that day valid? Have I to make up for that day because I had no intention except after its proper time?

Answer: You have to make up for the day on which you did not intend to observe Sawm from the previous evening. Having intention the night before Sawm is a condition for the validity of obligatory Sawm. The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated: Whoever does not determine to fast before dawn has not fasted. (Related by the Five Compilers of Hadeeth [Imaams Ahmad, Aboo Daawood, Al-Tirmithee, Al-Nasaa’ee, and Ibn Maajah])..read more here.

Intending Sawm in the morning

Question: At the beginning of Ramadaan in the past year, we kept waiting for hearing anything about the start of the month, but we could not. We slept without having intention to observe Sawm (Fast). In the morning, we learned that Ramadaan had started on that day and so we observed Sawm on that day (first of Ramadaan). What is the ruling on our Sawm? Have we to make up for that day?

Answer: If the case is as you mentioned in your question, it is obligatory upon you to make up for that day because you did not have the intention from the previous night..read more here.

Determining Salaah to take place within ten minutes after Iftaar

Question: Some people determined Salaah (Prayer) to take place within ten minutes after Iftaar (breaking the Fast).

Answer: If people know the exact time of the Iqaamah (call to start the Prayer), this facilitates attending Salaah with the Imam (the one who leads congregational Prayer) and Takbeerat-ul-Ihraam (saying: ”Allaahu Akbar [Allaah is the Greatest]” upon starting Prayer). It is reported in the Sunnah (whatever reported from the Prophet) that there is an interval between Athaan (call to Prayer) and Iqaamah that equals the time of having a meal..read more here.

Pronouncing the intention to observe Sawm

Question: We used to intend Sawm (Fast) of the next day directly after Maghrib (Sunset) Prayer: The Imam (the one who leads congregational Prayer) says: “I intend to observe Sawm tomorrow as a fulfillment for the obligation of observing Sawm in this year for the sake of Allaah (Exalted be He) and out of Ihtisaab (confident anticipation of Allaah’s Recompense) for His sake.” Then, the Ma’mooms (people being led by an Imam in Prayer) repeat the words after the Imaam.

Answer: Having the intention to observe Sawm during the night before dawn each day is Waajib (obligatory) according to Sharee`ah. Hafsah (may Allaah be pleased with her) said that the Prophet (peace be upon him) stated: He who does not determine to fast before dawn does not fast. (Related by Ahl-ul-Sunan [authors of Hadeeth compilations classified by jurisprudential themes]) The heart is the place to determine intention..read more here.