Suffering from epilepsy and having to take medication permanently during daytime

Question: My 13-year-old brother suffers from epilepsy and has to take medication three times a day. How should he observe Sawm (Fast)? Should Kaffaarah (expiation) be paid when Sawm becomes obligatory upon him?

Answer: When your brother reaches puberty by having one of its relevant signs, such as discharging Maniy (sperm), growing of coarse pubic hair, or reaching fifteen years old, it is obligatory upon him to observe Sawm. If he cannot do so because of his illness, it is permissible for him to break Sawm if it is a chronic illness..read more here.

Suffering from cancer severely during Ramadaan and breaking Sawm

Question: My mother suffered from cancer, and the disease became so severe on 13 Ramadaan, 1411 A.H., causing her to break Sawm (Fast). She remained ill until she died on 11 Shawwaal, 1411 A.H. I do not know whether I should observe Sawm and give Kaffaarah (expiation) on her behalf. Please advise!

Answer: If the case is as you mentioned, there is nothing upon the mother because she is excused for breaking her Sawm. Moreover, she was not able to make up for these days until she died..read more here.

My father died without fasting Ramadaan due to his illness

Question: My father died and did not fast Ramadaan due to illness? Should I fast to make up for the missed days or provide needy people with food on his behalf? Which one is better?

Answer: If your father was able to make up for these missed days and did not do so, it is permissible for you to fast on his behalf. The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated: Whoever dies not having completed some days of the fast, an heir must fast on their behalf. (Agreed upon by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim and reported by `Aa’ishah [may Allaah be pleased with her])..read more here.

Permanent suffering from an illness before Ramadaan until death

Question: My sister’s husband suffered from cancer, may Allaah protect us and you from it, and underwent surgery. In that year 1411 A.H., he became very sick before, during, and after Ramadaan. He died after Ramadaan, may Allaah admit him to Paradise. He did not fast the Ramadaan of that year.

The question is: How much Kaffaarah (expiation) should be paid for a missed day? Is it a Saa` (1 Saa` = 3 kg. Approx.), more, or less? Is it permissible to give rice instead of wheat? Is it permissible to give only wheat?

Should the Kaffaarah be paid all at once on one day or day by day? We would like to know the answer to this question. It should be known that his wife, my sister, will pay this Kaffaarah. He had young children and two wives, my sister and her co-wife who is from our tribe. He also was burdened with debts.

Answer: If your sister’s husband continued to suffer from this illness before Ramadaan until his death, you have not to make up for the missed days of fast or to pay Kaffaarah. He is exempted from fast during Ramadaan due to illness, and because he could not fast after Ramadaan due to the continuation of his disease until death..read more here.

A person suffered an illness that prevented him from observing Sawm till his death

Question: My father (may Allaah be merciful to him) died about twenty years ago after suffering from a chronic disease. The illness became so severe culminating in his suffering from intense thirst. He used to drink water every now and then. No matter how much water he drank, it would not quench his thirst. We used to give him a cup of water about every five minutes. If we would give him more water, he would drink it due to extreme thirst.

His Eminence Chairman, the reason for the above mentioned explanation is to tell you that my father could not observe Sawm (Fast). During these years of illness, he witnessed Ramadaan and observed Sawm fourteen days with great hardship. At the time ofIftar (breaking the Fast), he used to be extremely hungry and thirsty. He could not complete Sawm of the remaining sixteen days of that month, and he continued to suffer from this illness until the next Ramadaan when he could not observe Sawm at all. He (may Allaah be merciful to him) lived for about three months after that Ramadaan, may Allaah admit him to Paradise, while having to make up for 46 days. I asked some scholars who told me that there is nothing upon him as long as he continued to suffer from illness until his death.

After hearing some scholars on Saudi radio with different opinions about what I was told, and out of my desire to discharge the obligation of my father and to act according to the rulings of Sharee`ah (Islaamic law), I would like to know Your Eminence’s opinion and ask you give me a written answer. May Allaah reward you with the best. May Allaah grant you success in the way of goodness and guiding Muslims. If there is a Kaffaarah (expiation) to be paid, please clarify it and its description. Is it permissible to send it to the deserving recipients through organizations like Snabil Al-Khayr?

If there is Sawm to be observed, is it permissible for his children, including me, to share out these days among ourselves, with eachobserving Sawm some days? Should we share out the Kaffaarah and Sawm if we have to do both of them? Is our father’s obligation discharged? Anyhow, I am waiting for the Sharee`ah ruling in a written answer by you. May Allaah reward you with the best. Al-Salaamu `alaykum wa rahmatullaah wa barakaatuh (May Allaah’s Peace, Mercy, and Blessings be upon you).

Answer: If the reality is as you mentioned that your father was ill until he died and that he was not able to observe Sawm in Ramadaan during his illness until he died; then, there is nothing upon your father: neither making up for these days nor Kaffaarah (expiation)..read more here.

After recovery, a person did not make up for the missed days of Sawm before his death

Question: My father has been ill for about a year. He was not aware that the month of Ramadaan had commenced; and when he recovered, he did not make up for this month. It should be known that he was religiously committed; however, the illness was extremely severe.He died when he was over ninety years old. He left a son who works and other sons as well as daughters who are married. Is it permissible for his family to make up for the missed days of Sawm (Fast) or pay Kaffaarah (expiation) on his behalf?

Answer: If he recovered from his illness and did not make up the missed days of Sawm while he was alive, one of his family members should make up for these days on his behalf..read more here.

An epileptic patient taking medicine continuously during the daytime of Ramadaan

Question: All praise be to Allaah Alone, and peace and blessings be upon the Last of the Prophets. To proceed:

The Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Iftaa’ reviewed the submitted question by the Director of Da`wah and Guidance Center to His Eminence the Grand Muftee at Abha in his letter no. A/9/566, dated 5 Sha`ban 1414 A.H, which was referred to the Committee from the Secretariat General of the Council of Senior Scholars no. 3590, dated 8 Sha`ban 1414 A.H. His Eminence attached a question from a person stating:

My daughter is about thirteen and half years old, meaning she is pubescent and Mukallaf (person meeting the conditions to be held legally accountable for their actions). She has been diagnosed with epilepsy, and is currently being treated with medication which must be administered during the day and night. Taking into consideration that she still suffers from this disease and has seizures if she does not take the pills to be swallowed with water – on their prescribed time either day or night – is it permissible to pay Kaffaarah (expiation) for not observing Sawm (Fast)? Is it permissible to pay the Kaffaarah of the entire month all at once? The girl in question has been ill for eleven years and is still undergoing treatment. Please advise, may Allaah grant you success.

Then, a reply was sent to His Eminence with a letter no. 2/2395, dated25 Sha`baan 1414 A.H, requesting him to send the attached medical report. His Eminence’s reply was sent in letter no. A/9/641, dated 3 Ramadaan 1414 A.H, with a medical report stating: “The patient suffers from epileptic attacks. She regularly takes medicine for this reason five times a day during the day: 6 am, 7am, 8 am, 3 pm, and 4 pm. The medicine cannot be given only once or twice during the day or night.”

Answer: After studying the question the Committee answered that her father should pay 15 Saa` (1 Saa` = 3 kg. Approx.) if Ramadaan is thirty days. If it is twenty nine days, he should pay 14.5 Saa`. He should pay them to the poor, even if to one poor person either in the beginning of the month, during it, or at the end of it until Allaah cures her..read more here.

A woman suffering from diabetes and hypertension

Question: Suffering from diabetes, hypertension and cholesterolemia, I am duty-bound to make up for the missed days of fast of two months and ten days. Moreover, I gave birth to a child during Ramadan and doctors asked me not to fast. Is it permissible for me to pay expiation for the missed days of fast? If yes, how much should I pay? Is it permissible for my children to fast on my behalf while I am still alive?

Answer: You should make up for the Ramadaan fasts you missed during past years. If you cannot make up for missed days of fast because your illness is incurable, you should feed a poor person per each day half a Saa` (1 Saa` = 3 kg. Approx.) of the local staple food. Such Kaffaarah (expiation) may be given in total to one poor person and may be given all at once. However, it is impermissible for your children to fast on your behalf while you are living..read more here.

Observing Sawm on the part of a diabetic

Question: I contracted diabetes before Ramadaan 1413 AH and doctors asked me not to fast the days of Ramadaan of that year and the next year 1414 AH as well. I am treated with insulin injections three times a day. Should I make up for the days I missed in Ramadaan? Please, be informed that I am financially supported by my father. How should I feed persons in case I am duty-bound to do so? May I calculate the total value of the food that I should give to the poor and pay its value in cash all at once?

Answer: If you cannot fast because of this illness, you may break fast. Later, if you can make up for the days you missed, you should do so. If you are perpetually unable to make up for them, you should feed a poor person 1.5 kilogram of the local staple food for each day you broke fast, thus discharging the obligation of fast. It is also permissible to calculate the total amount of food and give it all at once to one or more poor people at the beginning or at the end of Ramadaan. We ask Allaah to cure you of all harms..read more here.

A sick woman who can neither observe Sawm nor afford feeding a Miskeen

Question: A chronically sick woman did not observe Sawm (Fast) during Ramadaan last year. Even now, she cannot make up for the days she missed in Ramadaan, bearing in mind that she did not observe Sawm the entire month of Ramadaan. Moreover, she is unable to pay expiation or feed poor people. I would like also to inform you that doctors asked her not to observe Sawm. What should she do? What if she dies? May Allaah bless you and grant you success!

Answer: If the reality is as you mentioned, this woman should feed a poor person for every day she breaks Sawm. The amount of what she pays to the poor is 1.5 kilogram of the common food of the country for each day she missed. However, if this is beyond her financial ability, she is excused..read more here.

The patient harmed by Sawm may break it and make up for it upon recovery

Question: I am ill and the doctor has asked me not to perform Sawm (Fast). This doctor is Muslim and performs Salaah (Prayer) with us in the Masjid (mosque). Should I follow his advice, taking into consideration that I cannot endure abstaining from water for more than two hours? If I do not perform Sawm, is it possible to feed a Miskeen (needy) for each day in which I break my Sawm through the program of feeding a fasting person coordinated by charities or the Islaamic Relief Organization? I appreciate your guidance, may Allaah guide you.

Answer: If the reality is as you mentioned, it is better to break Sawm, as it will be beneficial for you and will rid you of any difficulty while you have a legal excuse – illness. You should make up for the missed days of Sawm when you recover, and you are not obliged to feed Miskeens in this case..read more here.

Feeding a Miskeen on behalf of an old person who is not able to perform Sawm

Question: My grandmother (may Allaah be merciful to her) died two years ago, but she was unable to perform Sawm (Fast) in Ramadaan, as she was ill and feeble-minded. What is the ruling? Should I pay Sadaqah (voluntary charity) for each day in which she did not perform Sawm, or what should I do?

Answer: You should feed a Miskeen (needy) for each day in which she did not perform Sawm an amount of half a Saa` (1 Saa` = 3 kg. Approx.) of the staple food of the country. Ibn `Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him and his father) commented on the Aayah (Qur’aanic verse) in which Allaah (Exalted be He) states.. read more here.

What is prescribed for the children of the diseased to do

Question: Our father is old and has been suffering from a brain stroke for a year and a half. He is bedridden and only looks at us without speaking or moving. We do not know whether he recognizes us or not, and he has remained in the hospital throughout this entire period with a male nurse to care for him. We are with him constantly, taking care of him, and turning him in the bed every two hours. Outwardly, he is shining in a way that indicates happiness, praise be to Allaah. Our father has been an upright and devout man throughout his life, may Allaah restore his health. He used to recite the Qur’aan and never approached a Munkar (deed which is unacceptable and disapproved by Islaamic law and Muslims of sound intellect); and everyone acquainted with him knows this. He taught us Islaam, all praise be to Allaah, till it has become more precious to us than our souls, children, and everything in this world. We exerted every effort for the sake of treating him, but our efforts were in vain – Laa hawla wa Laa quwwata illaa billaah (there is neither might nor power except with Allaah). The question is:

1- What are the Aayaat (Qur’aanic verses) and Hadeeths regarding the trials that afflict a weak upright believer who stops all forms of `Ibaadah (worship) during his illness?

2- What should we do to dedicate to him Salaah (Prayer), Du`aa’ (supplication), and Qur’aan recitation we can do during his life, and what can we send forth for him and our mother who died thirty years ago? I hope you will provide us with a convincing useful answer, may Allaah reward you with the best.

3- We asked for a Muslim male nurse, but a non-Muslim came. We tried to send him back, but he appears to be kind and takes care of our father well. Thus, we kept him with our father and we try to convince him to embrace Islaam. Is it permissible to keep him with our father? What do you advise us in this respect?

4- Last Ramadaan, we asked many shaykhs concerning what we could do for our father, but we did not get a proper detailed Fatwaa (legal opinion issued by qualified scholar). Thus, we fed a Miskeen (needy) for each day in which he did not perform Sawm (Fast) an amount of a kilogram of rice and some dates. What should we have done, taking into consideration that our father does notperform any act of `Ibaadah, due to his condition and inability to recognize anything? He merely stares at us. However, we fear that he perhaps is aware of his state and is discontent with his condition. And Allaah knows best.

The doctors say that he is unconscious; therefore, we have let his beard to grow as it was and have not trimmed it? Should we shorten it, or leave it as it is?

5- Whenever we remember his condition while praying, sleeping, at home or work or elsewhere, we blame ourselves, thinking what should we do, and what a disaster has afflicted us and our father. We wonder whether it afflicted our father due to the many sins we committed, or due to his own sins. However, we as well as others know that he has been upright all his life.

We hope you will clarify these matters for us, may Allaah reward you with the best. Al-salaamu `alaykum wa rahmatullaah wa barakaatuh (May Allaah’s Peace, Mercy, and Blessings be upon you).

Answer: First, verily Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) afflicts people in this world and makes a trial of them with evil and good, illness and good health, distress and well-being, to test the patient and gratitude people. Then, He will reward them on the Day of Judgment. Allaah (Exalted be He) says… read more here.

Making up for the missed days of Sawm during illness throughout four years

Question: A person fell ill and was hospitalized; therefore, he did not perform Sawm (Fast) for some days in Ramadaan, but later recovered. He performed compensatory Sawm for some of the days of the previous Ramadaan, then the following Ramadaan came and he did not make up for the previous missed days.Is it permissible for him to make up for these days after the second Ramadaan, as he intends to make up for them?

Answer: This person should continue making up for the days in which he did not perform Sawm due to his illness, even after the next Ramadaan. Moreover, he should feed a Miskeen (needy) for every day of Sawm he missed and delayed without a legal excuse till the next Ramadaan came... read more here.

Four years have passed and she has not been able to perform Sawm in Ramadaan

Question: My wife is nearly 50 years old. She is completely paralyzed and has not spoken for five years. Four years have passed and she has not been able to perform Sawm (Fast) in Ramadaan. We did not feed Miskeens (needy people) as we did not know. Moreover, she is still extremely ill, and cannot move or speak except through signs. We do not understand anything she says except the Shahaadah (Testimony of Faith), which she can say.

Based on her condition, I hope Your Eminence will give me a legal opinion concerning the rulings on her acts of `Ibaadah (worship) and the Sawm or its compensation that she should perform. May Allaah safeguard you!

Answer: If two or more trusted doctors decided that your wife’s illness cannot be cured, she should feed a Miskeen for each day in which she did not perform Sawm in the past as well as the days that she will not fast in the future an amount of half a Saa` (1 Saa` = 3 kg. Approx.) of the staple food of the country... read more here.

Performing compensatory Sawm for Ramadaan in the future

Question: My mother is 58 years old. She became ill on 7 Rajab, 1418 A.H, which resulted in being handicapped. Later, she began to recover, all praise be to Allaah. She did not perform Sawm (Fast) in Ramadaan, so that she would be able to take her medications and eat, because she suffered from incontinence, may Allaah safeguard you. Should we feed Miskeens (needy people) on her behalf? Is she obliged to offer Kaffaarah (expiation), and what is its amount?

Answer: If your mother is able to perform compensatory Sawm for Ramadaan in the future after recovering, she should wait till then. She should perform compensatory Sawm, and she is not obliged to offer Kaffaarah. However, if her illness is permanent and she cannot perform compensatory Sawm in the future, she should feed a Miskeen for each day in which she broke her Sawm an amount of half a Saa` (1 Saa` = 3 kg. Approx.) of the staple food of the country... read more here.

Delaying compensatory Sawm for the missed days of Ramadaan till recovery

Question: My wife suffers from physical pain. She could notperform Sawm (Fast) of the previous Ramadaan. And she will not be able to perform Sawm of the following Ramadaan. Thus, we ask you to give us your legal opinion concerning how she should make up for missed days of Sawm and the Kaffaarah (expiation) she should offer. May Allaah bless you!

Answer: If your wife is expected to recover, she should make up for Sawm for the days on which she broke it. She should do this after she recovers. If she is not expected to recover in the future, she should feed a Miskeen (needy) person for each day on which she broke her Sawm an amount of 1.5 kg of staple food of your country. This compensates for performing Sawm, as this Fatwaa was reported from a group of the Companions (may Allaah be pleased with them) of the Prophet (peace be upon him)... read more here.

Feeding a needy person for each missed day of Sawm

Question: During last Ramadaan, I was ill in the Military Hospital in Riyadh, as I suffered from pain on Friday, 29th of Sha`baan and I spent the night in the heart center. Then, the doctors decided to perform a surgery on three arteries. Moreover, they advised me not to perform Sawm (Fast), as it would negatively affect my health because I suffer from hypertension, diabetes and asthma, according to the attached medical reports. Thus, I was prevented from performing this Fareedah (obligatory act).

In Muharram, 1420 A.H., I suffered from chest and liver diseases, resulting in me staying in the Military Hospital. After a checkup, I was given intense treatment, which the doctors advised me to take three times daily for nine months starting from 12 Safar, 1420 A.H.

Your Eminence Muftee (Muslim scholar qualified to issue legal opinions), I am seventy years old, and I am confused concerning how to make up for the days in which I broke my Sawm during the blessed Ramadaan, 1419 A.H. Thus,I hope you will give me your legal opinion concerning making up for these days.

Answer:  If you are not able to make up for the missed days of Sawm permanently, you should feed a Miskeen (needy) for each day an amount of 1.5 kg (of staple food). You are not obliged to perform Sawm. Allaah (Exalted be He) says: And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g. an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskeen (poor person) (for every day). In this Aayah (Qur’aanic verse), the ruling on the person who can observe Sawm is abrogated, based on Allaah’s Saying... read more here.

Feeding a Miskeen by the patient who can not perform Sawm

Question: My wife suffers from diabetes to the extent that she sometimes faints. Two female Muslim doctors treating her decided that she could not perform Sawm (Fast) or Hajj. Respected Shaykh, my wife was not able to perform Sawm last Ramadaan due to her illness and pregnancy; then she miscarried.

The question is: What is the ruling as she is unable to perform Sawm especially after her miscarriage? What is the ruling on her inability to perform Hajj, taking into consideration that she did not perform the obligatory Hajj? Moreover, she is pregnant now, and is expected to give birth at the end of Sha`baan, what should she do about Ramadaan this year? The doctors, who are treating her, still order her not to perform Sawm for an indefinite period. I hope you will give us your legal opinion, may Allaah reward you with the best!

Answer: First, if the reality of your ill wife is as you mentioned, she should feed a Miskeen (needy) for each day on which she did not perform Sawm an amount equal to half a Saa` (1 Saa` = 3 kg. Approx.) of the staple food of your country.

Second, if she could not perform Hajj in person, she should deputize someone to perform the obligatory Hajj and `Umrah on her behalf… read more here.

The believers are afflicted with calamities in the worldly life

Question: I had an accident ten years ago that caused me hemiplegia. Moreover, I have involuntary urination and excretion. A doctor advised me not to perform Sawm (Fast). Thus, I have not performed Sawm for the past ten years. I know that I should feed a Miskeen (needy) for each day in which I did not perform Sawm. Is it permissible for me to pay money instead of food? How much should I pay for the ten years? Should I pay it to one person or to many people? Please advise us, may Allaah benefit us and you!

Answer: If the reality is as you mentioned in the question that you cannot perform Sawm permanently, you should feed a Miskeen an amount of 1.5 kg of staple food in your country. Allaah (Exalted be He) says: And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g. an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskeen (poor person) (for every day). You should not pay money instead of food, as it is not in accordance with the Nas (Islaamic text from the Qur’aan or the Sunnah)… read more here.

Sawm for the patient suffering an incurable disease

Question: My wife is seventeen years old and suffers from anemia. A doctor warned her not to perform Sawm (Fast), and she has not performed Sawm in Ramadaan for three years except for a few days. In addition, she is not able to make up for the missed days of Sawm, because whenever she performs Sawm for two or three days, she is taken to the hospital, and the doctor warns her against this. As her body is weak, I hope you will give us your legal opinion concerning the action she should take. May Allaah reward you with the best!

Answer: If the reality is as you mentioned, your wife is not obliged to perform Sawm. However, she should feed a Miskeen (needy) for each day she missed Sawm an amount of 1.5 kg of staple food. Allaah (Exalted be He) says: And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g. an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskeen (poor person) (for every day). This means that the people who are unable to perform Sawm due to a chronic disease or old age can feed a Miskeen for each day, as explained by Ibn `Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him and his father) and a group of Salaf (righteous predecessors). If she recovers from her illness and becomes able to perform Sawm, she should perform it… read more here.

Taking medicine in the daytime of Ramadaan

Question: I have been suffering from depression and psychological disturbance for more than thirteen years, and I use some sedatives, but the number of tablets that I take have now reached 10 tablets per night, in addition to the medicine that I take for diabetes and the electro-convulsive therapy because my body has gained immunity against the medicine. I sleep about two hours only every night after taking the tablets, then I spend the rest of the night suffering from sleeplessness and psychological instability.

And now as Ramadaan is approaching, the time of taking the medicine will change and I will encounter a lot of suffering like last year, as I underwent a lot of exhaustion and fatigue by observing Sawm (Fast). Some scholarly students have told me not to observe Sawm and to feed poor people instead, and now I am not able to do without sleeping and having rest. I beg Your Eminence to direct me to the right way, and I hope that your answer be written on paper so as to be evidence that I can show to my sons or anybody who may suspect my attitude. May Allaah guard you and reward you with the best.

Answer: If the case is as you mentioned, and you are unable to fast because you need to take the medicine during the daytime, and the illness you have continues throughout the whole year, it is permissible for you not to observe Sawm and you must feed one Miskeen (needy) for each day an amount of half a Saa` (1 Saa` = 3 kg. Approx.) from the country’s staple food such as rice… read more here.

Making up for the missed days of Sawm due to a chronic disease

Question: My father entered the intensive care unit in the hospital at the beginning of the blessed month of Ramadaan 1416 A.H. He suffered from both cardiac failure and nephritis caused by instability in the level of blood sugar. He was in a semi coma in the first four days, and during the rest of the month his state got a bit better. He left the hospital a few days before the day of `Eed-ul-Fitr (the Festival of Breaking the Fast) as his state was relatively better, but he was still ill and continued to take drugs as prescribed by doctors. He continued taking pills three times a day: morning, afternoon, and evening for diabetes, blood pressure, and strengthening the heart muscle, and extracting the liquids from the body.

Being in such a case, he could observe Sawm (Fast) for only four days in the beginning of the month and could not observe Sawm during the rest of the month. Before Ramadaan 1417 A.H.,my father gave out two sacks of rice, each of which weighs 45 kilograms, as charity to two poor families. In Ramadan of this year (1417 A.H.), he could not observe Sawm at all as doctors forbade him to do so. After `Eed-ul-Fitr, he similarly gave out two sacks of rice and one of the reliable brothers distributed them to some poor and needy families. However, my father wants to be sure that he acted as the Sharee`ah (Islaamic law) dictates, and wants to know from Your Eminence what he should do in detail. May Allaah reward you abundantly.

Answer: If your father cannot make up for the days he missed from Ramadaan because of his chronic disease, he should provide for each day he missed an amount of one kilo and a half of staple food for a needy person or some needy people. This feeding is a substitute for making up. Allaah (Exalted be He) says: And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g. an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskeen (poor person) (for every day). Therefore, what you have given out is even more than what you should pay, and thus the surplus amount shall be counted as a Sadaqah (voluntary charity). However, if your father is expected to recover his health and be able to make up for the missed Sawm, he should wait until he recovers to make up for it… read more here.

Sawm for the patient suffering an incurable disease

Question: I suffer from renal failure. The doctor has forbidden me from performing Sawm (Fast), as it affects my health negatively and I cannot endure it. He decided that I should be treated by dialysis twice a week. I have undergone dialysis for a month and a half. Later I saw another doctor in Riyadh, who prescribed medication for me and diet. I eventually recovered, all praise be to Allah, but I broke my Sawm in Ramadaan for three years. I performed Sawm this year with difficulty, as I consulted a doctor who recommended me to perform Sawm for ten days and then return to him to determine whether I could continue Sawm till the end of the month or break it. When I came back to him, he told me to continue performing Sawm till the end of the month. I hope you will advise me concerning the days in which I did not perform Sawm.

Should I make up for the missed days of Sawm in the previous months of Ramadaan, although I paid Kaffaarah (expiation) for each month? If it is obligatory to make up for them, should I make up for the three months in one year or only a month per year? May Allaah safeguard you.

Answer: If the reality is as you mentioned and you fed the poor (as Kaffaarah) for the previous years, as a trusted doctor told you that Sawm would affect your health negatively,as well as your inability to perform it in the future, your feeding of the poor was valid and there is no blame on you In-shaa-Allaah (if Allaah Wills). If your health is now better and the doctor permits you to perform Sawm, you should perform it in the future and you are not permitted to feed the poor instead… read more here.

Suffering renal failure and undergoing dialysis three times a week and in Ramadaan

Question: I suffer from kidney failure, and I undergo dialysis three times a week, that is, every other day; and in Ramadaan, some of the sufferers from this disease can fast and others can not.

My first question is: Can those who are capable of observing Sawm (Fast) do? Are they obliged to do anything, knowing that some people say that their Sawm is not valid as there are some solutions that enter the body with the blood. Then, if the Sawm is not valid, what is the ruling to be followed? Does one have to compensate for the days he could not fast, or to feed, or do both? And, what is to be done concerning the years in which a person used to observe Sawm while undergoing dialysis?

The second question is: Is it permissible to perform Salah (Prayer) while undergoing dialysis without Wudoo’ (ablution)? And if not, what is to be done if the Thuhr (Noon) and the `Asr (Afternoon) Prayers pass while we are undergoing dialysis, and sometimes we are very tired as a result of the dialysis, and we take a rest till the time of the Maghrib (Sunset) Prayer, so we perform them all together. Is this permissible?

Answer: If delaying the dialysis till the evening during the days of Sawm is not possible, and the patient has to undergo dialysis while observing Sawm, dialysis invalidates the Sawm because, according to what specialists mention, it involves taking the patient’s blood out of his body into a machine and then returning it to the body with some chemicals and nutrients that are added to it, such as sugars and salts, and this invalidates the Sawm. In this case, the patient has to abstain from all that breaks his Sawm for the rest of the day in which he undergoes dialysis, unless it becomes necessary for him to break his Sawm the rest of the day because of his illness… read more here.

A woman suffering from kidney failure and undergoing dialysis during Ramadaan

Question: My mother has been suffering from kidney failure for nine years; and Ramadaan comes while she undergoes dialysis to purify her blood. She goes to the hospital three times a week: Saturday, Monday, and Wednesday. The dialysis functions through tubes and two injections, thus breaking one’s Sawm (Fast). She has not performed Sawm of Ramadaan for nine years on the days which she has dialysis treatments. When Ramadaan passes, she feeds Miskeens (needy people) without making up for the missed days of Sawm, as she goes to the hospital three times a week. What should she do, although nine Ramadaans have passed? Is there any sin on her, as she fed Miskeens for every day in which she did not perform Sawm without making up for the missed days of Sawm? I hope you will give us your legal opinion, may Allaah reward you with the best.

Answer: If the reality is as you mentioned, she should make up for the missed days of Sawm. This Sawm should take place in regular order: she should make up for the missed days of Sawm in the first Ramadan, then the second…Etc… read more here.

Undergoing dialysis to purify the blood of a kidney patient invalidates Sawm

Question: All praise be to Allah Alone, and peace and blessings be upon the Last of the Prophets, to proceed:

The Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Iftaa’ reviewed the question received by His Eminence the Grand Muftee from the questioner, the Head of the Kidney Department in Riyadh Medical Complex, Dr. Fahd ibn Ahmad Al-Kanhal. It was referred to the Secretariat General of the Council of Senior Scholars, no. 5315, dated 27 Sha`baan, 1418 A.H. The questioner asks the following:

We have many patients suffering from chronic kidney failure, which is an incurable disease according to what is known about its nature. One of the medical treatments necessary to keep the patient alive is the continuous portable peritoneum purification. It entails laying a permanent artificial tube in the patient’s abdominal wall. Liquid is injected into the abdominal cavity through the artificial tube four times a day, i.e. Every six hours. This liquid contains salts, sugar, and water which are a kind of nutrition. Its function is to draw out the extra fluids and poisons from the body, the function that would be done by the healthy kidney. Some of these components are absorbed into the blood from the peritoneum membrane lining the abdomen and not through the stomach.

The question is: Is this method permissible in Ramadaan, i.e., in the day of Ramadaan? I appreciate your guidance, may Allaah guide you.

Answer: If the reality is as you mentioned, this procedure of purification invalidates Sawm (Fast). If it cannot be delayed until the evening, and the disease is not expected to be cured, the patient should feed a Miskeen (needy) for each day in which he or she breaks Sawm an amount of 1.5 kg in compensation for Sawm. If it is expected to be cured, the patients should perform compensatory Sawm after their recovery… read more here.

Allaah permits a patient who cannot fast to break fast during Ramadaan

Question: I am a 29-year-old man. I suffer from chronic renal failure and I must have dialysis three times per week. During Ramadaan, I would fast a day and not fast the next. I thus broke my fast on 12 days during the Ramadaan of 1415 A.H. I made up for five days, and there remains seven days.

Is there any atonement due on me for the remaining days? What should I do in Ramadaan of the current year, taking into consideration that my condition will be the same as last Ramadaan – that is, fasting a day and breaking the fasting on the next day?

Answer: Allaah (Exalted be He) has permitted those who are ill and unable to fast to break fast in Ramadaan. You need not do anything regarding the days in which you break your fast except making up for them. You should make up for these seven days when you are able. The same applies to the days of fast missed from the second Ramadaan of 1416 A.H. This is based on the general ruling in the Saying of Allaah: …and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Sawm (fasts) must be made up] from other days… read more here.

A person’s wife suffers from kidney failure and cannot observe Sawm

Question: All praise be to Allaah Alone, and peace and blessings be upon the Last of the Prophets, to proceed:

The Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Iftaa’ reviewed the question received by His Eminence the Grand Muftee from the Director of Da`wah and Guidance Center in Najran, referred to the Committee from the Secretariat General of the Council of Senior Scholars, no. 4313, dated 21 Sha`baan 1412 A.H., regarding a man’s wife suffering from kidney failure, stating the following:

His wife suffers from kidney failure and receives medical treatment at the Public Hospital in Najran. She cannot perform Sawm (Fast) as mentioned. We asked the husband to attach a medical report about the state of the patient from the hospital in which she receives treatment. We attach to Your Eminence the requested report received from Najran Hospital about the state of the patient. I hope you will give the man a legal opinionwhether his wife should perform Sawm or not. As stated in the attached medical report, the patient suffers from chronic kidney failure and undergoes dialysis treatments three times a week. The duration of each session is four hours.

Answer: Upon considering the Fatwaa request, the Committee answered that the patient is permitted to break her Sawm on the days which she receives dialysis treatments and the other days in which she is not on dialysis, if she cannot endure Sawm. She may make up for all of the days on which she broke her Sawm after Ramadaan, if she can… read more here.

Sawm of a diabetic kidney transplant patient

Question: Allaah (Glorified be He) willed that I have been suffering from diabetes since I was about 14 years old and in 17 Muharram, 1411 A.H., I had kidney failure; and in 16 Jumaada Al-Thaanee, 1412 A.H., I had a kidney transplant in the Arab Republic of Egypt, which cost me a large sum of money. When Ramadaan, 1412 A.H. started, the doctor ordered me not to fast, so I fed one Miskeen (needy) for each day. And, I have a follow-up in hospital every month and a half, so I asked the doctor about Sawm, and he told me to fast if I can, and not to fast if I am not able to, knowing that the doctor is a Muslim, and he is Sudanese.

Knowing, respected Shaykh, that the doctor told me that: If you fast, do not do a lot of work and do not sleep at night so as to make up for the liquids that you lost throughout the day. In addition, I take medicine for diabetes in the morning and in the evening, and another medicine between 9:00 am and 10:00 am, and between 9:00 pm and 10:00 pm. The doctor has also advised me to drink 4 or at least 3 bottles of mineral water a day. Knowing that I argued with the doctor about Sawm and he did not tell me whether to fast or not, I ask Allaah (Exalted be He), then Your Eminence, to answer my question and tell me whether I can fast or not. May Allaah reward you with the best.

Answer: You must fast if delaying the medicine till night will not cause you any harm, but if you find it difficult to fast or your illness worsens, or if taking the medicine is necessary during the day in which you have to fast, you do not have to fast and you must feed one Miskeen for each day. This should be one and a half kilos of the country’s staple food, if you are not likely to recover and are not able to compensate for the days that you missed… read more here.

Sawm of elderly heart patients

Question: I would like to inform you that I am an old man, about eighty years old. I am a heart patient and I take tranquilizers three times a day according to the recommendations of the doctor. I have never stopped taking such pills. The blessed Ramadaan has come and it might be difficult for me to perform Sawm (Fast). I hope that you will inform me urgently with your legal opinion, as I fear Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He). May Allaah grant you success to what pleases Him, and safeguard you.

Answer: If the reality is as the questioner mentioned, he is permitted to break his Sawm to take the prescribed drugs, and then perform compensatory Sawm whenever he is able to do so… read more here.

Offering Sawm on behalf of a kidney patient

Question: I had a kidney transplant after suffering from kidney failure three years ago. Two Ramadaans passed in the last two years in which I broke my Sawm (fast) and fed a Miskeen (needy) according to the recommendation of the doctor, as I was not able to perform Sawm. The reason is that I was not able to delay my prescribed drug from the morning to the evening, and that I should drink no less than three or four liters of liquids to enable my kidney to work well. This year, the doctor informed me that there is no objection to perform Sawm, and I do, in fact, continue fasting, all praise be to Allaah. What should be done about the two previous months of Ramadaan, in which I broke my Sawm? Should I perform compensatory Sawm in my current state, even if I am afraid of the deterioration of my state, may Allaah forbid.

Answer: If the doctor, who told you this was Muslim, and you fed Miskeens for the two months in which you broke your Sawm, and now your health is better and you are able to perform Sawm, you should perform Sawm in the future without repeating the Sawm of the previous months… read more here.

Should a young ill female observe Sawm?

Question: My eleven-year-old daughter has to observe Sawm (Fast) in Ramadaan this year, but she suffers from epileptic fits and has to take her medication every day. If she doesn’t, the disease will overtake her again. Should she observe Sawm this year or not?

Answer: If your daughter has not yet reached puberty, she does not have to observe Sawm, for she is not Mukallaf (person meeting the conditions to be held legally accountable for their actions). The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: There are three (persons) whose actions are not recorded… And he mentioned among them the young until they reach puberty… read more here.

Is the woman advised by doctors not to observe Sawm due to experiencing an operation exempted from Sawm?

Question: I underwent surgery at the beginning of Ramadaan, during which I did not perform Sawm (Fast) according to the recommendation of the doctors. I gave out the equivalent of Mudd (a dry measure of half bushel, 543 grams) of wheat. I asked scholars, some of whom said that feeding Miskeens (needy people) is valid, while others said that I must perform Sawm for this month. I hope Your Eminence will answer the following questions, take into consideration that two years have passed and I did not perform Sawm for this month:

1 – Should I perform Sawm for this month or feeding is valid?
2 – If it is not valid, is it permissible to perform Sawm for this month before next Ramadaan?

Answer: You should perform compensatory Sawm for the days you broke your Sawm in Ramadaan at the time of the surgery. Allaah (Exalted be He) says: …and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Sawm (fasts) must be made up] from other days. Moreover, you should feed a Miskeen (needy) for every day you delayed the performance of compensatory Sawm until the next Ramadaan had come… read more here.

Should the woman who was injured by fire make up for the missed days of Sawm?

Question: My wife was predestined to be injured by fire as the kerosene refrigerator burst into flames. Some parts of her body were injured due to this fire years ago. Then, Ramadaan came while she was being treated in the hospital and was pregnant as well. Then, she gave birth to a baby in the hospital during her illness. She stayed in the hospital for a year and did not perform compensatory Sawm (Fast) for Ramadaan of that year. She is still ill in the hospital; sometimes she is pregnant and some others she is ill. As I mentioned, she did not perform compensatory Sawm until now. Is she obliged to perform compensatory Sawm or anything else?

I hope you will give us your Fatwaa (legal opinion issued by qualified Muslim scholar) concerning these religious matters that Your Eminence sees as well as the necessary action that should be performed, including compensatory Sawm or anything else. May Allaah safeguard you and enlighten your sight and insight. Al-salaamu alaykum wa rahmatullaah wa barakaatuh (May Allaah’s Peace, Mercy and Blessings be upon you).

Answer: Your wife should perform compensatory Sawm for the days she broke her Sawm in Ramadaan. However, if she delayed it until another Ramadaan passes without an excuse, she should perform Kaffaarah (expiation) in addition to compensatory Sawm by feeding a Miskeen the equivalent of half a Saa` (1 Saa` = 3 kg. Approx.) of wheat, rice, etc. Of the staple food of your country, for every day of Sawm she broke… read more here.

Offering Sawm on the part of a kidney patient

Question: In the year 1409 A.H., it was Allaah’s (Glorified be He) destiny that I was afflicted with renal failure, which made me break my Sawm (Fast) three days in Ramadaan. Three months later, I underwent a surgical operation for a kidney transplant. The operation was successful, thanks to Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He). In the year 1410 A.H., (i.e. after the kidney transplant) the doctors advised me not to observe Sawm due to my need to drink large amounts of water and some medicines. After that, I suffered from blood pressure, i.e. in the year 1411 A.H. Yet, I have managed to observe Sawm in Ramadaan till now, praise be to Allaah, but until now I have not made up for the month of Ramadaan or the three days I did not observe Sawm.

– Is there Kaffaarah (expiation) due on me for the previous months of Ramadaan?
– Is it permissible to give the total sum to just one person?
– Is it permissible to give it in the form of money? If so, how much is it?

Answer: It is obligatory on you to observe Sawm the days you failed to observe, once you are able to do so, since this is an obligation that you owe. You should both feed a poor person half a Saa` (1 Saa` = 3 kg. Approx.) as Kaffaarah for each day and make up for these days. You should feed a poor person for each day of Sawm you missed, because you delayed making up for it despite your ability to do. It is up to you whether you give the whole Kaffaarah to one poor person or more… read more here.

Experiencing a severe headache when fasting

Question: I broke fast for twenty-five days during Ramadaan, and fasted for only five days. This is because I get a terrible headache all day whenever I fast. I even suffered from a painful headache during the five days that I fasted, to the extent that I could barely prostrate while praying. Before this year, I fasted normally without suffering any headaches. Due to my misunderstanding of religious texts concerning asceticism and renouncing worldly pleasures, I would spend one or two days without having even one meal. This resulted in my suffering from a constant headache for ten months. I checked with a doctor who prescribed me some drugs and ordered me not to skip any meal and not to starve myself. Therefore, whenever I fast or skip a meal, this terrible headache strikes me. Kindly give me your Fatwaa (legal opinion issued by a qualified Muslim scholar) in this regard before the next Ramadaan comes or death overtakes me.

Answer: You have to make up for the days on which you broke fast during Ramadaan as soon as possible. Allaah (Exalted be He) says: …and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Sawm (fasts) must be made up] from other days. You do not have to do anything else, unless you postpone making up for the missed days while being able to do so until the next Ramadaan comes. In this case, you would have to make up for the days and also feed a needy person one and a half kilograms of foodstuff for every day you broke fast. There is nothing wrong with making up for these days separately… read more here.

A person who can make up for the missed days of Sawm

Question: I had an accident two years ago. During this period, I was not able to perform Sawm (Fast). Thus, I fed a Miskeen (needy) for each day and performed compensatory Sawm for a month. But, there is one month left, should I perform compensatory Sawm or feed Miskeens? All praise be to Allaah, I can now perform Sawm, but I am still paralyzed. I hope you will give me your Fatwaa (legal opinion issued by qualified Muslim scholar) concerning this matter.

Answer: If you can perform compensatory Sawm for the days in which you broke your Sawm, you should perform it. However, you should not feed Miskeens in this case, because it is only obligatory on a person who can not perform compensatory Sawm… read more here.

Making up for the days of Sawm missed on the part of a kidney patient

Question: I would like to tell Your Eminence that in the year 1404 A.H. I was afflicted with renal failure, whereupon I underwent a surgical operation to have a kidney transplant. The operation was successful, praise be to Allaah. Yet during the period from 1404 to 1409 A.H., I could not fast the blessed months of Ramadaan. I have been feeding a poor person for each day of fast that I missed till the end of the year 1409 A.H. after this, the doctor allowed me to fast with the beginning of Ramadaan 1410 A.H. In 1411 A.H., I made up for the Ramadan of 1405 A.H. Thus, I must make up for four Ramadaans. Please guide me whether it is sufficient to feed the poor as Kaffaarah (expiation) for the four months or I should make up for them by fasting. May Allaah guard you.

Answer: You should make up for the days you failed to fast due to your illness because now you have recovered from your illness. Allaah (Exalted be He) says: …and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Sawm (fasts) must be made up] from other days… read more here.

Fasting on the part of a heart patient

Question: I suffer from heart disease and I was subjected to electronarcosis in a hospital in Buraydah. The doctor prescribed continuous therapy for me. I find it too difficult to fast Ramadan. I also suffer from some other ailments in my abdomen, such as colitis and very severe constipation. I hope Your Eminence will give me a Fatwaa (legal opinion issued by qualified Muslim scholar) regarding fast and what I should do. May Allaah protect you!

Answer: You should make up for the days of Ramadaan you failed to fast when you recover from your illness. If this is an incurable illness, you should offer Kaffaarah (expiation) by feeding a poor person for each day of fast you missed. The amount of food you should give to a poor person is half a Saa` (1 Saa` = 3 kg. Approx.) of wheat, rice, or other such staple food… read more here.

Offering Sawm on the part of a kidney patient

Question: I am a thirty-eight year old woman with five children: three sons and two daughters. My eldest son studies at university, some of them are in the elementary stage, and the others are in the preparatory stage. I want to inform Your Eminence that I have been suffering nephritis and have been receiving treatment for ten years. During this period, and with the approval of my husband, I underwent a surgical operation to have a ligature. Yet, with the passage of time, the illness has aggravated and I got renal failure. Then I have been undergoing dialysis twice a week. In the month of Sha`baan 1414 A.H., Allaah (Exalted be He) conferred His blessing on me and my brother donated me his kidney. The implant succeeded, thanks to Allaah (Exalted be He). Yet, I am still receiving treatment and the doctor asks me not to offer Sawm (Fast).

Thus, I hope Your Eminence will give me your Fatwaa (legal opinion issued by qualified Muslim scholar) regarding whether it is obligatory on me to make up for the days I missed or feed the poor as Kaffaarah (expiation) for this. Note that I was prevented from offering Sawm by a Muslim Sudanese doctor. Al-saalamu `alaykum wa rahmatullaah wa barakaatuh (May Allaah’s Peace, Mercy, and Blessings be upon you)

Answer: If you cannot offer Sawm, because of your illness or for fear that this may result in delaying the healing of your illness, it is permissible for you not to offer Sawm, but you should make up for the days of Sawm you missed. After Allaah (Exalted be He) grants you recovery, you can make up for these days… read more here.

How to make up for the missed fasts of several months of Ramadaan?

Question: It happened that my wife suffered some burns on her body in 1408 A.H., and she was hospitalized for treatment. She remained there till the end of the year, which prevented her from fasting the month of Ramadaan in that year (i.e. 1408 A.H.). She could not fast because of the instructions of the doctor, since her body was bleeding and she was receiving glucose nutrition. She was also obliged to make up for a week of fast that she missed in Ramadaan of 1407 A.H. When she left the hospital, she managed to fast the Ramadaan of 1408 A.H. and then fasted the week of the previous Ramadaan of 1407 A.H. Is her fast this way correct, as she observed fast for what she missed in 1408 A.H. first and then the week missed in 1407 A.H.?

Please clarify the issue and the manner of expiatory fast or feeding the poor if there is anything obligatory on her.

Answer: The way she made up for the days of fast she missed of Ramadaan is correct. Yet, if she could fast the seven days before the following Ramadaan, she should feed a poor person as Kaffaarah (expiation) for each day,because she delayed making up for them till the next Ramadaan. Her way of fast is correct… read more here.

Observing Sawm on the part of a diabetic

Question: I have suffered from diabetes for four years. I used to fast Ramadaan every year, but over the last two years I have found it too hard to fast. My physician decided that I should break fast, but I continued to fast some days and break fast on other days.

Am I to be rewarded by Allaah for these days which I fasted? Should I make up for the days on which I broke fast?

During this time, I was still a student, so my father paid to feed needy people for each day on which I broke fast. Now, all praise be to Allaah, I work and earn enough money; should I repay to my father the money he paid to feed the needy people on my behalf or use the money to feed more needy people?

Answer: You have to make up for the days on which you broke fast in Ramadaan, and should also offer Kaffaarah (expiation) for the days on which you broke fast and did not make up for until the next Ramadaan. The Kaffaarah is half a Saa` (1 Saa` = 3 kg. Approx.) of the staple food ofthe country, which you should give to needy people or just to one person in proportion to the number of these days. The Kaffaarah that your father paid on your behalf is counted and you do not have to offer it again… read more here.

Making up for the days of Sawm missed due to a long-term illness

Question: I have been suffering an illness for several years. The illness began in a previous Ramadaan that I have not been able to make up for till now, since I am still under treatment. Every three months, I undergo an operation in the hospital for the completion of treatment that extends over five years. It should be known that I work far away from the area where I lived, which makes it very difficult for me to fast. Thus, what should I do? Please advise us! May Allaah reward you!

Answer: You should count the days in which you did not fast in Ramadaan and make up for them after Allaah (Exalted be He) grants you recovery from your illness. If the illness continues with you and your case is hopeless,you should feed a poor person for each day… read more here.

Making up for the days of Sawm missed by a patient

Question: I underwent an operation in Ramadaan, and I stayed in hospital till the end of the month. How can I make up for the days of the month that I could not fast? And, if I can not make up for the Sawm (fast) till next Ramadaan, how can I make up for it in both cases?

Answer: It is permissible for you not to fast in Ramadaan if you have an illness that makes Sawm difficult or impossible for you. Then, you can compensate for the days of Sawm that you missed whenever possible, even if another Ramadaan passes, because you have an excuse for delaying this compensation. Allaah (Exalted be He) says… read more here.

Should the patient and the traveler observe Sawm or they have Rukhsah not to do?

Question: Shaykh Muhammad Mutawallee Al-Sha`raawee, may Allaah safeguard him, said about the Aayaat (Qur’aanic verses) nos. 183-184 in Soorah (Qur’aanic chapter) Al-Baqarah that any one who is ill or on a journey must not observe Sawm (Fast) and must compensate for that missed Sawm. But he affirmed that this applies to any kind of illness, even if Sawm causes the patient no harm and constitutes no threat upon him. He also said that no traveller should observe Sawm and must compensate for the days that he missed. He took evidence from what Allaah (Glorified be He) says: …and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Saum (fasts) must be made up] from other days. He says: “The same number of days”, which means making up for the missed days, and not “and if they did not observe Sawm, then the same number of days”.

In short, he said that any one who is ill or on a journey must not fast and must compensate for the missed days, taking evidence from the word: “The same number of days must be made up for from other days”. So, it is affirmed that this must be done whether or not the patient or the traveler observes Sawm. What is the ruling on this?

Is it right that any one who is ill or on a journey must not observe Sawm, taking evidence from this Aayah?

Answer: Any person who is ill and finds it difficult to observe Sawm, or who is on a journey, has Rukhsah (concession) not to observe Sawm on the daytime of Ramadaan, according to what Allah (Exalted be He) says: …and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Sawm (fasts) must be made up] from other days. However, if they observe Sawm, then it is valid, according to the Hadeeth narrated by `Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) that: Hamzah Ibn `Amr Al-Aslamee (may Allaah be pleased with him) asked the Prophet (peace be upon him): Shall I fast while travelling? And, he used to fast a lot. He said: You may fast if you wish, and you may not fast if you wish. (Related by the Six Hadeeth Compilers [Al-Bukhaaree, Muslim, Aboo Daawood, Al-Tirmithee, Al-Nasaa’ee, and Ibn Maajah])… read more here.