Is it lawful for the inhabitants of deserts to break Sawm in Ramadaan if weather is very hot?

Question: People in the Sahara may witness Ramadaan during the summer season. It becomes too difficult or even impossible for them to observe Sawm (Fast). However, this will last for many years so how can those people observe Sawm? What should the elderly- who can neither observe Sawm nor feed needy people do?

Answer: When Ramadaan comes, it becomes obligatory upon every healthy, resident, and Mukallaf (person meeting the conditions to be held legally accountable for their actions) Muslim to observe Sawm. Allaah (Exalted be He) more here.

Is it permissible for shepherds to break Sawm in Ramadaan?

Question: I suffer from thirst and fatigue while I am pasturing animals. May I break Sawm (Fast) in Ramadaan and make up the missed days later? May Allaah reward you with the best.

Answer: Pasturing is not a legal excuse that permits you to break Sawm in Ramadaan. It is obligatory upon you to observe Sawm and seek reward from Allaah in return for patience in enduring fatigue and thirst. In-shaa’ Allaah (if Allaah wills), Allaah (Exalted be He) will help you to do more here.

Breaking the obligatory Sawm due to travelling, illness, or fearing for a person’s life

Question: Is it permissible to break Sawm (Fast) during daylight hours of Ramadaan in case of exhaustion, hunger, or thirst while carrying out civil defense operations? What is the criterion in this regard?

Answer: It is impermissible to break the obligatory Sawm without the excuse of illness or travel, except for the one who fears for their own life, or needs to break Sawm to save the life of another, if this can not be achieved without breaking more here.

Observing Sawm by a pilot officially assigned to fly inland or abroad

Question: All praise be to Allaah, and peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions. To proceed:

The Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Iftaa’ reviewed a question submitted by Air Commodore, `Abdul-Muhsin Ibn `Abdullaah Al Al-Shaykh, to His Eminence Chairman that was referred from the Secretariat General of the Council of Senior Scholars no. 2/175, dated 10 Safar, 1397 A.H. The question is:

As pilots are required to fly during the day in Ramadaan but the rules of flying state that pilots should not observe Sawm (Fast) while flying, and we give precedence to the teachings of Islaam over all conditions, we would like to know your Fatwaa on this issue. Is it permissible for pilots to break Sawm when flying during the day in Ramadaan?

Answer: The Committee answered as follows:

If pilots fly for a distance that makes it permissible to shorten Salaah (Prayer), it is lawful for them to break Sawm during the daylight hours of Ramadan after departing the town in which the airport is located. It is permissible for them to enjoy every Rukhsah (concession) permitted for travelers, such as wiping over the Khuffs (leather socks) for three days, combining two Salaat (Prayers), and shortening the four-Rak`ah Salaah (Prayer consisting of four units) throughout the flight even if they land in the airport of another country until returning to their home country even if on the same more here.

Does the air force commissioned of patrolling take the same ruling as traveling?

Question: As Ramadaan approaches, the first air battalion in the Northern Region is being commissioned to fly at least a six-hour patrol a day over the northern borders. As a result, the pilots exert strenuous effort to perform this task and cannot observe Sawm (Fast) due to safety procedures. It should be known that there are two flight shifts, day and at night. Sometimes, there is an additional patrol on standby. Therefore, we would like to submit the case to the authorities concerned to instruct us on the issue of allowing the pilots to break their Sawm, so that they will be able to properly complete their task and safeguard lives and properties.

Answer: First: Commissioned pilots with the task of patrolling the northern borders, which are at the distance of eighty kilometers from their places of residence, the distance which permits shortening Salaah (Prayer), are permitted to break Sawm once they depart their base. It is permissible to break Sawm before flying, if more here.

Is the person studying abroad permitted to break Sawm?

Question: Should we observe Sawm (Fast) in this country, India. It should be known that our stay here is known approximately. Most of us observe Sawm in Ramadaan. Is it permissible for us to break Sawm?

Answer: It is obligatory upon you to observe Sawm in Ramadaan because it is one of the Arkaan (Pillaars) of Islaam. It is impermissible for you to break Sawm because you are in the country where you study. You are not considered travelers. Allaah permits only the ill and the traveler to break Sawm. Allaah (Exalted be He) more here.

Breaking Sawm for playing football

Question: Is it permissible to break Sawm (Fast) because of playing football?

Answer: It is impermissible to break Sawm during the day of Ramadaan because of sports activities such as football or the like. This is not one of the valid legal excuses for breaking more here.

Traveling by comfortable means of transportation such as trains or ships

Question: Is it permissible for the person who comfortably travels by train or ship to break Sawm (Fast)?

Answer: If the distance of travel is eighty kilometers or more, it is Mustahab (desirable) for the traveler to break Sawm, even if the means of transportation is comfortable like a train, ship, car, or plane. This is based on the general meaning of evidence on this more here.

Beginning Iftaar by eating meat if there is no date

Question: Is it permissible for a fasting person to begin Iftaar (breaking the Fast) by eating meat if they do not find date?

Answer: It is permissible to break Sawm (Fast) with dates, any type of food, or meat. However, it is better to break Sawm with ripe dates. If one does not find ripe dates, one may eat dried dates. If there are no dried dates, they can break Sawm with water. It was authentically reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to do more here.

Intending to break Sawm and only chewing gum, then intending to complete Sawm

Question: A man was traveling during Ramadaan. He intended to break Sawm (Fast), but he did not eat and only chewed gum until noon. Then, he intended to complete his Sawm and broke his Sawm at sunset. What is the ruling on the Sawm of that day? Has he to make up for this day?

Answer: If he intended to break Sawm or chewed gum, his Sawm was broken. Consequently, he has to make up for that more here.

Traveling for a distance less than that which permits a fasting person to break Sawm and breaking Sawm

Question: I am an eighteen-year-old student, all praise is due to Allaah. In the past Ramadaan, I travelled by a truck to an area at a distance less than that permit a fasting person to break Sawm (Fast); so, I observed Sawm and travelled. When I reached this area, I became extremely thirsty and broke my Sawm. Have I only to make up for this day or to make up for this day and pay Kaffaarah (expiation) as well?

Answer: If you broke your Sawm due to intense thirst, you have to make up for the day on which you broke more here.