Small Mahr like a ring

Question 14: Is it permissible to marry with a small amount of Mahr (mandatory gift to a bride from her groom), such as a ring?

Answer: There is no minimum or maximum limit for Mahr. It might be a ring, its value or more. However, it is impermissible to exaggerate in the value of Mahr, as it leads to many evils... read more here.

The Mahr limits

Question 13: Is there a certain limit for a woman’s Sadaq (Mahr, dowry to a bride from the groom)? What is meant by the phrase “the easiest in their dowry” mentioned in the honorable Hadeeth?

Answer: A Woman’s Sadaq has no definite limit. Whatever is permissible to own, whether a large or small amount, is permissible to be given as a Sadaq for women. As for the Hadeeth narrated by Aboo Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) stated: The most blessed marriage is the easiest in costs and dowry.(Related by Ahmad) It means that paying the dowry should be made easy... read more here.

Paying Mahr proper to that paid to a girl of the same social status

Question 12: I married one of my daughters to a man whom I did not ask to pay a Mahr (mandatory gift to a bride from her groom). One year after their marriage my son-in-law gave me a Toyota (car) though I did not ask him to do so. What is the ruling on this?

Answer: It is permissible for you to take the car from your son-in-law. If he gave it to you as a Mahr, it should go to your daughter. However, if he gave it to you as a gift; you may take it for yourself but your son-in-law has to pay a proper Mahr to your daughter if he did not do so at the time of the conclusion of the marriage contract... read more here.

Mahr as working for the father-in-law for a certain period

Question 11: I am poor and cannot afford marriage. A man offered to give me his daughter in marriage provided that I work for him for a one month period, and this shall be her Mahr (dowry to a bride from the groom).The man’s daughter agreed to this offer, is this permissible in Islaam? Could this be a valid marriage?

Answer: If the matter is as mentioned, it is permissible to work for this man for one month and consider this the Mahr for his daughter; and the marriage would be valid... read more here.

Man’s intention not to pay off Mahr

Question 10: Please be advised that I am a young man about to graduate. I proposed to a girl six months ago, and her father agreed to our marriage. I agreed with them to pay her 100,000 Rupees as Mahr (mandatory gift to a bride from her groom). Our customs are that the mentioned sum of money is written in the contract, but only half of it is paid in the form of jewels and clothes. Due to myfinancial situation, I do not have this sum of money, so I cannot pay it. I have read in some books that if a man marries while owing part of the Mahr (mandatory gift to a bride from her groom), while he does not intend to pay it, he will be resurrected on the Day of Judgment as an adulterer. Please advise concerning the following:

First: Is this Hadeeth Saheeh (authentic)?

Second: If it is Saheeh, what should I do? Should I break the engagement or continue? Please note, that the marriage has not yet taken place.

Third: Given the situation, does the previously-mentioned Hadeeth apply to my case? Please advise. May Allaah guide you.

Answer: First, it was mentioned by Al-Mundhiree in his book entitled “Al-Targheeb wa al-Tarheeb”, on the authority of Suhayb Al-Khayr (may Allaah be pleased with him) that he said, “The Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) said... read more here.

Husband’s responsibilities

Question 9: Is the groom responsible for meeting all the marriage requirements alone? Is the bride’s family allowed to impose conditions concerning these requirements?

Answer: The basic ruling is that it is obligatory upon the groom to pay Mahr (mandatory gift to a bride from her groom) to the bride. They should mutually agree to state its amount. If any excess is needed, it should be settled according to mutual agreement. It is noteworthy that the agreement should conform to the purified Shar` (Law) as the Prophet (peace be upon him) said... read more here.

Registering everything the husband offers in a list

Question 8: What is ruling on the so called Qa’ymah (list) of all house items, whether bought by the groom or anyone else that is attached to the marriage contract? It is noteworthy that such a Qa’ymah is claimed to be among the public interests especially in this age with the spread of fraud, and that it is a similar document to the marriage contract itself.

Answer: If the matter is exactly as what is mentioned in the question, there is no impediment to include such a Qa’ymah with the document of the contract of marriage. Both the bride and the groom may sign it to define for sure what the husband has bought in case that a dispute between the two sides arises and a Khul` (divorce at the request of the wife in return for compensation to the husband) is to take place... read more here.

Husband’s in-laws giving him money

Question 7: According to the traditions of Muslims in India, when contracting a marriage the bride’s family presents a large sum of money to the bridegroom’s family. This causes a lot of problems; for example young men find it difficult to choosethe right wife, as the families of brides who may not seem suitable enticingly pay large amounts of money. Besides, poor Muslim families find themselves obliged to borrow money in order to marry their mature daughters. This hinders the Muslims’ progress in this state. In the state of Kerala, there are many Islaamic societies, but none of them care about this matter. I hope you will clarify this question in the light of the Islaamic creed. If this tradition violates the Sharee`ah, I hope you will point this out.

Answer: When contracting a marriage the woman should receive Mahr (mandatory gift to a bride from her groom) that is payable by the husband on the spot or deferred, whether it is little or much. Allaah (Exalted be He) says... read more here.

Stipulating `Umrah as Mahr

Question 6: I wish that Allaah blesses me with performing `Umrah (lesser pilgrimage) or Hajj. Since the financial conditions of my family do not allow me to perform Hajj or `Umrah, I had an idea; namely to stipulate for the man who may propose to me and whom I hope will be a righteous man to make my Mahr (mandatory gift to a bride from her groom) enough money to allow me to perform `Umrah if possible. Is this condition against any of the rulings of the Sharee`ah pertinent to marriage?

Answer: There is no harm if you stipulate for the potential husband to make your Mahr enough for your performance of `Umrah. It is authentically reported in the Two Saheeh (authentic) Books of Hadeeth (i.e. Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim) that... read more here.

Husband offering the Mus-haf as Mahr

Question 5: Is it permissible for a person to give a copy of the Qur’aan as a Mahr (mandatory gift to a bride from her groom) to his wife? What should be done if he divorces her in this case?

Answer: First, It is permissible for the person to make teaching the Qur’aan to a woman her Mahr (mandatory gift to a bride from her groom) at the time of concluding the marriage contract if he does not have money. It is authentically reported in the Two Saheeh (authentic) Books of Hadeeth (i.e. Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim) on the authority of Sahl ibn Sa`d (may Allaah be pleased with him) that... read more here.

Obligation of husband giving Mahr

Question 4: A man here in Kashmir has to spend huge sums of money on his daughter’s wedding; he has to give gifts, home appliances, and a car or a refrigerator, for example, to the groom, based on what they ask for. These have become almost a custom. The father also has to willingly give him jewelry and expensive clothes sometimes, and bear the costs of the wedding, which can amount to hundreds of thousands of Rupees. This man may also face problems if he does not offer these requirements, as engagement or marriage break-up.

The question is: Can the money spent on a daughter’s wedding be deducted from her share in the inheritance, and is it lawful for a woman’s share in inheritance to be relinquished?

Answer: In marriage contract, it is obligatory for the Mahr (mandatory gift to a bride from her groom) to be paid by the husband, as Allaah addresses husbands saying: And give to the women (whom you marry) their Mahr (obligatory bridal-money given by the husband to his wife at the time of marriage) with a good heart; but if they, of their own good pleasure, remit any part of it to you, take it, and enjoy it without fear of any harm (as Allaah has made it lawful).... read more here.

Offering Mahr in the form of commodity

Question 3: A man married a woman promising to give her a golden anklet, two camels, and two rings as Mahr (mandatory gift to a bride from her groom). Then his wife died. He says that the value of these golden items has changed. Should he pay their value according to their price at the time of concluding the contract or according to today’s price?

Answer: If the reality is as mentioned, that he promised to give his wife golden anklets, two camels and two rings, he must fulfill the promise regardless of the value of these items before or after the time of fulfillment. He has to hand them to the rightful inheritors of his wife or to their authorized agents. If they agreed upon estimating the value justly according to today’s price, there is no harm in that... read more here.

Marrying a woman without paying Mahr (mandatory gift to a bride from her groom)

Question 2: A man who worships Allaah alone gave his beautiful daughters in marriage without receiving a Mahr (mandatory gift to a bride from her groom). He did not even receive clothing, money or anything else. Is this marriage valid?

Answer: Mahr is a prerequisite for marriage. The texts of Qur’aan and Sunnah and Ijmaa` (consensus of scholars) indicate that it is required and obligatory. Allaah (Exalted be He) says: And give to the women (whom you marry) their Mahr (obligatory bridal-money given by the husband to his wife at the time of marriage) with a good heart which means: give them their dowry out of free will according to the obligation prescribed on you by marrying them... read more here.

Fixing Mahr (mandatory gift to a bride from her groom)

Question 1: What is the maximum and the minimum limits of Mahr (mandatory gift to a bride from her groom)? Is it Haraam (prohibited) to increase it?

Answer: There is no evidence in the Qur’aan or the Sunnah on the recommended amount of Mahr. Some of the evidence mentioned in the Qur’aan allow the payment of a large Mahr, while others are general and include both large and small. The first type includes Allaah’s saying (Exalted be He)... read more here.

The marriage contract of two married non-Muslims who enter Islaam

Question 9: A Christian man accepted Islaam and became a true Muslim, and his wife also accepted Islaam with him. He studied the matters of religion thoroughly, learnt the Qur’aan and mastered it. When the people saw his efforts in Islaam, they took him as an Imaam (the one who leads congregational Prayer). However, they doubt the validity of his leadership, as he has not renewed his marriage contract, having been married with a contract written according to Christian standards. Does Islaam acknowledge the contracts that were written before it?

Answer: If a Kaafir (disbeliever) and his wife accept Islaam, whether Christians or otherwise, they do not have to renew their marriage contract; their former contract is acknowledged... read more here.

Validity of marriage when the spouses enter Islaam

Question 8: I know a 24-year-old man who was Christian, but Allaah guided him to do that which He loves and which pleases Him, and he embraced Islaam in Egypt. He is an Egyptian and he has now left his parents, his wife, and his 3-year-old child, and traveled abroad in pursuit of a better future. However, he receives letters from his mother and sends her some money, saying that it is a way of maintaining the ties of kinship. Is it permissible for him to be in touch with and support his Christian mother, when he is Muslim? The brother also asks about returning to his wife, if she agrees and she accepts Islaam. If he does, should there be a new marriage contract or is the contractthey first made sufficient? If she refuses to accept Islam, but agrees to live with him, is it permissible for a Muslim man to be married to a Christian woman? What is the consequence on the children, are they Christians or Muslims? He insists that he will marry a Muslim woman if his wife refuses to embrace Islaam. We are trying to convince him to return to his wife for the sake of his child as they have now been separated, without a divorce, for four years. Please advise us and may Allaah guide you and reward you with the best!

Answer: First, A son supporting his disbelieving mother is Waajib (obligatory); he has to be a good companion to her and be dutiful to her and maintain kind relations with her as far as he can. Allaah (Exalted be He) says (what means)... read more here.

A Muslim woman remaining married to a non-Muslim husband

Question 7: Your Eminence, a woman phoned me from Lebanon. She told me that she was a Christian, but that Allaah had opened her heart to Islaam. She belongs to a religious family that is fanatical about its religion. The woman said that if her husband knew about her acceptance of Islaam he would kill her in a terrible way. She has started to give up the symbols of her Christian faith, such as wearing a cross, wearing short dresses, and drinking Khamr (intoxicant). However, there are certain things that she is afraid to give up otherwise she will be killed, such as marital relations with her husband. The woman says that if she is driven out of her house, she will die, because she does not have anyone there that she can turn to after Allaah. All the members of her family and the people in her village hate Islaam with a vengeance. She is married and has three married daughters, who have stopped visiting her at her home, because she has taken her cross off from around her neck; so how much worse it will be if they know about her Islaam. The woman states that it is extremely difficult for her to perform Salaah (Prayer), but she will try to combine two Salaahs in secret when her husband and family are not around. Dear respected Shaykh, how will she observe Sawm (Fasting) in Ramadaan? The woman is suffering greatly and in deep trouble. She has two options, either to remain with them and return to Christianity or to abide by the teachings of Islam in secret, but she still has the problem of the marital relations with her husband; this is the major obstacle as she is afraid of being killed. Please, advise us and may Allaah reward you well. This is an urgent matter. May Allaah protect and guide you and benefit the Muslims through you.

Answer: It is not permissible for a Muslim woman to remain as the wife of a non-Muslim husband and it is not Halaal (lawful) for her to have marital relations with him. Allaah (Exalted be He) says (what means)... read more here.

A Muslim convert remaining with a non-Muslim husband

Question 6: Some women come to the office (of Da`wah (call to Allaah)) seeking Islaam, while they are still married to non-Muslims. It is known that the marriage of a Muslim woman to a Kaafir (disbeliever) husband is prohibited. Should these women be informed of this before or after pronouncing the Shahaadah (Testimony of Faith)? Especially that this ruling may lead to their hesitation in embracing Islaam or backing away from it depending on when they are informed of this. What is the opinion of Sharee`ah (Islaamic law) on someone who says that a woman should not be informed of this until she becomes deeply attached to Islaam, claiming that staying with a non-Muslim is Haraam (prohibited), but her apostatizing from Islaam or rejecting it is Kufr (disbelief), thus in this case, the greater evil is to be warded off by a lesser one represented in the staying of a Muslim woman with her kaafir husband to ward off her apostasy or rejection of Islaam. I hope that your Eminence would clarify the Shar`ee (Islaamically lawful) ruling in this case.

Answer: If a woman embraces Islam while her husband is a Kaafir, it becomes impermissible for her to stay married to him, due to the Saying of Allaah (Exalted be He): …then if you ascertain that they are true believers, send them not back to the disbelievers. They are not lawful (wives) for the disbelievers nor are the disbelievers lawful (husbands) for them.... read more here.

Circumcising a Muslim convert

Question 5: What should a Christian man do if he wants to embrace Islaam? There are controversial matters such as the fact that his marriage contract is based on his previous religion’s rulings, he has a number of children and whether he has to be circumcised bearing in mind that he is 35 years old. What are the priority issues he should first be taught?

Answer: First, He has to know and understand the meaning of the Two Testimonies of Faith. He thus has to be taught that Jesus is Allaah’s servant and messenger. Moreover, the six pillars of faith have to be made clear to him as well as the other pillars of Islaam each at its respective time... read more here.

Ruling on a Muslim woman remaining with a non-Muslim husband

Question 4: What is the ruling if a Christian woman whose husband is Christian converts to Islaam and wants to marry a Muslim man? What is the Shar`ee (Islaamic legal) ruling on this?

Answer: If a woman married to a non-Muslim man converts to Islaam, she is prohibited to be his wife and they should be separated. However, the elapse of her `Iddah (waiting period) has to be taken into consideration. If the `Iddah is over before he converts to Islaam, a minor irrevocable divorce will take place as Allaah (Exalted be He) said... read more here.

Is it lawful for a wife who enters Islaam to inform her husband?

Question 3: An Indonesian Christian woman who had come to Berlin, in West Germany, for a special task she is entrusted with by the government of Indonesia, converted to Islaam. The woman belongs to an influential family which has good connections with President Suharto. Moreover, her husband is an official in the Indonesian Ministry of Defense and Security. In Shaa’ Allaah (If Allaah wills), through her conversion to Islaam, being an intellectual and influential woman, she will prove to be useful to Islaam and Muslims. However, the dilemma is that Her husband is a Christian bigot and thus she cannot declare her conversion to Islaam. Until now, no one knows about her conversion except us (7 people only). Nevertheless, she intends to tell her husband and children about her conversion to Islaam in her own way so that she can call them to Islaam. Your Eminence Shaykh, I do not know what to do in this regard knowing that Allaah prohibited that a Muslim woman be married to a non-Muslim man and that such a woman has to leave her husband immediately after her conversion to Islaam. On account of her being a new convert to Islaam, I do not think she can enforce such an Islaamic ruling and I fear that she may go back to disbelief. Furthermore, she does not belong to an ordinary family. Had she belonged to an ordinary family, leaving the husband would have been easy. Therefore, I ask you about the issue and want, if possible, a fatwaa’ from Shaykh Ibn Baaz. May I postpone ordering her to leave her non-Muslim husband until her belief gets stronger? Or, what should I tell her?

Answer: She has to tell her husband about her conversion to Islaam and that she is now prohibited to be his wife until he embraces Islaam. If he embraces Islaam while she is in her `Iddah (waiting period), she will remain his wife without the need to contract marriage anew. However, if he converts to Islam after the `Iddah is over, he may marry her anew through a new marriage contract provided that she shows her consent and all Shar`ee (Islaamic legal) conditions are met... read more here.

Someone entering Islaam while married to women unlawful to marry

Question 2: Here in Sri Lanka some Kaafirs (disbelievers) have accepted Islaam, especially Buddhists, but they stay married according to their former religions. One might be married to his niece and they have children. In such a case, we cannot separate them. What should we do?

Answer: If both spouses accept Islaam together, and they are married in a way that is impermissible in Islaam, they must be separated at once, such as a couple who accepts Islaam while the wife is her husband’s niece... read more here.

Wife embracing Islaam before her husband

Question 1: A Christian woman who is married to a Christian man has embraced Islaam but he has not accepted Islaam yet. They are old now and no longer have sexual intercourse; is it permissible for her to remain with him or should the marriage contract be cancelled? How long should her `Iddah (woman’s prescribed waiting period after divorce or widowhood) be? What is the ruling on the Mahr (mandatory gift to a bride from her groom)? Is it permissible for him to take her back if he embraces Islaam?

Answer: If a Christian woman embraces Islaam while married to a Christian man, the marriage contract becomes invalid, and she is to give back the Mahr she received. Allaah (Exalted be He) states: …then if you ascertain that they are true believers send them not back to the disbelievers. They are not lawful (wives) for the disbelievers nor are the disbelievers lawful (husbands) for them. But give them (the disbelievers) that (amount of money) which they have spent [as their Mahr] to them.... read more here.

A wife asking for money to return to her husband’s house

Question 61: A dispute arose between a wife and her husband. The wife took her possessions and went to her father’s house. She refuses to return to her husband’s house unless he buys her this and that. Is the husband obligated to do what she wants? What is the ruling on such an act?

Answer: The basic principle of Islaamic marriage is that each partner has to treat the other kindly. Allaah (Exalted be He) says: …and live with them honourably. He (Exalted be He) also says: And they (women) have rights (over their husbands as regards living expenses) similar (to those of their husbands) over them (as regards obedience and respect) according to what is reasonable A wife is not permitted to violate the rights of obedience and kind treatment that the husband has over her, and which are entailed by the marriage contract, unless she has a Shar`ee (Islaamically lawful) reason that allows her to do so. When she disobeys her husband with no Shar`ee reason and stipulates that he should buy her this and that in order for her to return, she is sinful... read more here.

Woman lying to her husband

Question 60: A woman had a debt that she did not repay when she was young. When she married and her circumstances changed, she took a gold ring and watch that she had owned prior to marriage and sold them to repay her debt. She did not tell her husband the truth; she said that she had lost them. What is the legal ruling on this and what is the solution?

Answer: If the reality is as mentioned, she did nothing wrong in selling her possessions to repay her debt. There is no blame on her for doing that, as it was narrated by Muslim in his “Saheeh (Book of Authentic Hadeeth)”, on the authority of Umm Kulthum bint ‘Uqqbah, who said... read more here.

Husband disliking his wife

Question 59: I am a twenty-three year old young man. Two years ago, I married the daughter of my maternal aunt. I married her although I did not love her. It was my mother’s talk about her good manners that made me accept her as a wife. After marriage, I could not love her. I tried to force myself to love her but in vain. My place of work is far from my mother’s home and my wife lives with my mother. Now I only see them once in a year because I cannot stand staying with my wife whom I do not love. It should be noted that I have a daughter from her and my daughter loves me and I love her very much.

However, I no longer want her mother as a wife. We are married because as I mentioned previously it was my mother’s will and because I was young at that time and wanted to marry before my peers. I did not think of the future of our relationship. My wife is an honest and sensible woman, but I cannot love her.

Your Eminence, I need an urgent solution. What should I do? If I divorce her, my mother will be angry with me. I also fear that she may suffer after me and may not find another husband.

As I mentioned, she is my cousin and I do not want her to suffer. I also fear for my poor daughter. Should I endure life with her and marry another wife? It should be noted that I prefer to stay at my workplace, lest I do something that may upset my mother, especially as regards my wife, her niece. Again, if I marry another wife, I may not be fair to them as I do not love my first wife.

Answer: A husband should treat his wife kindly. If he hates her, he may divorce her one time. He may change his mind later on and go back to her. Also, it is permissible for you to marry a second wife, but it is obligatory that you observe equity between them as regards sustenance, housing, and spending the nights with them unless one of the wives gives up her right in any of these matters in which case there will be no blame on you... read more here.

Is it lawful for a woman to raise her voice over that of her husband?

Question 58: Is it permissible for a woman to raise her voice over that of her husband?

Answer: It is not permissible for either a husband or a wife to cause any harm to each another when they have no right to do so, whether by raising their voices or anything else... read more here.

A woman raising her voice over that of her husband

Question 57: What is the ruling on a wife who raises her voice over that of her husband when talking to him?

Answer: Married couples should speak to each other in a way that brings them closer and strengthens their relationship. Each of them should also avoid shouting at the other or addressing the other in a way they hate. Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) says: …and live with them honourably. A wife should not shout at her husband, as Allaah (Glorified be He) says: And they (women) have rights (over their husbands as regards living expenses) similar (to those of their husbands) over them (as regards obedience and respect) according to what is reasonable, but men have a degree (of responsibility) over them. However, a husband has to act wisely so arguments do not develop... read more here.

A psychologically ill wife who curses a lot

Question 56: I have a wife who gave birth to four children; the eldest is six years old and the youngest is a baby, and now she is pregnant. She is inflicted with a nerve illness and foolishness and has become rude to the extent that she curses me, my parents, and my children. I commanded her to observe Sawm (Fast) for three days, pay Sadaqah (voluntary charity), and make Tawbah (repentance to Allaah). I also abandoned her in bed, but she has not stopped this bad habit. Whenever she gets sick, she curses. She does not feel that she is committing a sin regardless of the advice and guidance I offer her. I suffer a lot with her and endure her for the sake of my children. However, I am no longer able to bear her. Could you kindly advise me. What should I do with her in this adversity?

Answer: We advise you and your children to treat her kindly; do not be bad with her or irritate her, advise her wisely with good manners, meet her bad sayings with good ones, explain to her that cursing is one of the major sins and that its evil will return against the curser if the cursed does not deserve it. May Allaah guide her to give up cursing and other misdeeds... read more here.

What is the consequence of spouses cursing one another?

Question 55: What is the consequence if a man curses his wife or a wife curses her husband? Do they become forbidden to each other in regard to marriage?

Answer: Neither of them will become forbidden to the other as a result of cursing and it does not result in divorce. However, his cursing her or her cursing him is a major sin and it is obligatory to make Tawbah (repentance to Allaah) and ask Allaah for forgiveness for what they have done. They also have to ask each other’s forgiveness for cursing... read more here.

What is the ruling on cursing the wife?

Question 54: A wife says that she argues a lot with her husband, and he may curse her more than five times. What is the ruling on this? May Allaah reward you good.

Answer: It is not permissible for a Muslim to curse his wife or any other Muslim, for the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, Cursing a believer is as (sinful as) killing them.” He (peace be upon him) also said, Reviling a Muslim is Fisq (flagrant violation of Islaamic law) and fighting against them is (tantamount to) Kufr (disbelief). However, the wife is not considered unlawful to the husband as a result... read more here.

What is the ruling on a person who sends Satan’s curse on his wife?

Question 53: What is the ruling on a person who sends Satan’s curse on his wife? Please advise, may Allaah reward you best.

Answer: He is considered a sinner and has to make Tawbah (repentance to Allaah) and ask his wife to forgive him. However, she does not become unlawful for him... read more here.

Wife seeking her husband’s forgiveness for her mistakes

Question 52: My father consulted my mother and bought seven goats for milk. My mother is the first lady of the house, taking care of everything in it. She was also responsible for feeding and giving water to the goats we raise, as part of her management of the entire house affairs. She was keen not to let the goats suffer hunger so that she may not become liable because of this. She sometimes preferred that another lady of the household, including her daughters and her three step-daughters, do these tasks on her behalf, but she did not order any of them to do so. One day in Ramadaan, we did not have Suhur (pre-dawn meal before the Fast) for loss of appetite, and since my mother suffers non-chronic asthma she got angry. Also, the goats entered some rooms of the house that contained our belongings. My mother got so angry because of what the goats did and due to the uncooperative attitude of some family members.

As a result, my mother cursed the goats and the person who brought them. Then, she invoked curses upon herself if she were to look after these goats or feed them again. All these things took place under the influence of the pricks of hunger due to fasting. On the following day, she retracted her saying and resumed feeding, watering and taking care of the goats out of fear of Allaah. My father was also angry with my mother when he heard her cursing. He deserted her and remained alone in one corner of the house because he thought that it was no longer suitable to live with her after the curses she invoked.

We are a large family, and it is difficult for us to experience disputes between our parents and my father’s desertion of my mother. I sold some of the goats and my father left their price with me, and the rest of the goats are still available in the house. Your Eminence, it is too difficult for us to see disputes between my parents. My father’s isolation caused me to file the case to your Eminence immediately through the head of Committee for the Propagation of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice (CPVPV) in Banu `Amr through Abha. He is the only person whom I informed about the case, and I hope that my papers will be submitted and returned to me through him. Do any of my parents incur anything in this story? We want to settle this dispute. May Allaah keep you doing righteous deeds.

Answer: If the case is as you have mentioned, it is obligatory on your mother to seek forgiveness from Allaah and repent to Him from the curses she invoked. She must ask pardon of your father. After that, there is nothing due on her, whether the goats remained in your house or were sold. There would be no harm on her if she feeds them later. We advise her to reunite with your father and behave in a good manner. There is no blame on your father to be intimate with your mother, as the invocation of curses does not end their husband-wife relationship, nor does it take the ruling of divorce. Also, there is no blame on keeping the goats, because cursing them by your mother does not cancel your father’s ownership of them... read more here.

Is Qiyaam al-Layl an excuse not to have intimate relations with the husband?

Question 51: Is it permissible for a wife to refuse to be in bed with her husband under the excuse that she observes Qiyaam al-Layl (optional Prayer at night) or says Tasbeeh (saying: “Subhaan Allaah [Glory be to Allaah]”)? Are such things Shar`ee (Islaamically lawful) excuses for her?

Answer: No, they are not Shar`ee excuses for her; as fulfilling the husband’s rights is obligatory while observing Qiyaam-ul-Layl and Tasbeeh are acts of Sunnah (supererogatory acts of worship following the example of the Prophet). The obligatory act of worship prevails over the acts of Sunnah. On the authority of Aboo Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) who narrated that Allaah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) said... read more here.

Cursing the husband does not deem him unlawful

Question 50: A slight clash took place between a wife and her husband. As a result, the wife got angry at her husband and started speaking ill of him and cursing him and his parents. The husband is inquiring about the ruling on this act. Does his wife become unlawful for him as a result of her act? We hope that you attend to this issue and answer us. May Allaah reward you the best for serving Islaam and Muslims. May Allaah safeguard you.

Answer: First, it is a major sin to curse a Muslim. It was authentically reported on the authority of Thaabit ibn Al-Dahhaak that the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) said: A person is not bound to fulfill a vow about a thing which they do not possess” , “If somebody curses a believer, their sin will be as if they murdered him” , “If somebody commits suicide with anything, they will be tortured with that very thing on the Day of Resurrection” , “Whoever falsely swears by a religion other than Islaam will be as they profess” and “Whoever accuses a believer of Kufr (disbelief), it is as if they killed him.... read more here.

Wife cursing the husband and children

Question 49: I have a wife who gave birth to eight children. One of my daughters is used to go out without my permission. Once I beat her and her mother reproached her and cursed her and her father and forefathers. Six months later, the girl went out without taking my permission. I beat her again and her mother cursed my mother three times. I was greatly offended by this insult. It is worth mentioning that I helped my wife to memorize two Juzz’ (a 30th of the Qur’aan) as well as the text of Al-Usool Al-Thalaathah (The Three Fundamentals). Nevertheless, this has not deterred her from cursing me and my parents. Please give me your Fatwaa’ (legal opinion issued by a qualified Muslim scholar).

Answer: If the reality is as you mentioned, the curses the woman uttered signify disobedience to Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) and an offence against the daughter, her father, as well as her grandmother. The wife has to make Tawbah (repentance to Allaah) by regretting the sin, giving it up, and being determined not to commit it again. She should ask for the forgiveness of those whom she cursed. Allaah (Exalted be He) says... read more here.

Patience with the wife and advising her to repent and adopt good morals

Question 48: I have a very good wife who keeps up Salaah (Prayer)and observes Hijaab (veil) in such a perfect manner that she has convinced all the women of our village to observe it. She has many good qualities but she makes some mistakes that I cannot overlook, lest they have a religious ruling. When she is angry, she curses me or my father, or utters things like, “May the Jinn harm you,” “I am not lawful to you”, or “It is not lawful for me to be your wife anymore.” Is it better for me to be patient? Are these words considered a serious violation of our marital duties?

Answer: If your wife is as righteous as you have mentioned, but she is afflicted with a foul mouth, you should tolerate her for the merits she has and advise her to avoid cursing and using foul language. You should urge her to perform Tawbah (repentance to Allaah) and to avoid the reasons that cause her to get angry. Moreover, she must offer Kaffaarah (expiation) for taking a false oath deeming her unlawful to you, but this has no effect on your marital relationship... read more here.

The spouses accusing one another of being non-Muslim

Question 47: Once after breaking my fast in Ramadaan, I beat my son. When my wife asked me who did it, I lied to her and said someone else’s name. So she said to me, “By Allaah! You are a Jew or a Christian.” Then I said to her, “By Allaah! It is you who are a Jew or a Christian.” Since that moment, I have not spoken to her. I need your advice, may Allaah reward you and a blessed month to you.

Answer: You and your wife must perform Tawbah (repentance to Allaah) and ask Him for forgiveness. You should also forgive one another... read more here.

A man mistreating his wife who goes out without his permission

Question 46: I am a 49 years old woman. I did not have the chance to know my father and I got married soon after his death. I have no siblings or relatives other than my cousins. Now I have ten children of which four are married. I suffer from vitiligo (loss of pigmentation) in my hands and feet since an early age and my husband always mocks me because of this disease since the day we married 22 years ago. Whenever he is angry with me, he says he is the only one who has endured me. At other times, he supplicates to Allaah against me saying, “May Allaah afflict you more and more”. He always threatens to marry another woman, and I do not object. Many times he goes out without saying where he is going. When he returns and I tell him that he is destroying himself and his children, he shouts saying that none will destroy the children but me. Sometimes he calls on me and when I come to him he tells me to go away. When I ask him to discipline the children, he yells at them and tells them that he does not want to see them.

Moreover, after my stepfather has died, sometimes my mother comes to visit me.When he sees us sitting, he does not even greet her; he does not respect her old age. She gets upset when I do not visit her, but he prevents me from going to her. When she comes over, he tells me to send her home, although she has no one but me. Occasionally, I go to her without his knowledge when he is at the Jumu`ah (Friday) Prayer. I do not know whom I should obey, my mother or my husband. Sometimes, I go to the neighbors to stay for a while because I am angry at him or at my children because the neighbors are kind. Am I a sinner for going there? I do not want to live with him anymore, but if I leave him I will have to leave my children and I cannot do that. Would you kindly advise me? May Allaah reward you good.

Answer: Firstly, You and your husband should treat one another with kindness and speak and behave politely. Secondly, each one of you should maintain the rights of the other and fulfill all mutual obligations. Both of you should disregard the minor mistakes of one another in order to overcome your problems and maintain a stable life. Thirdly, a wife should not leave the house of her husband except with his permission. If he prevents her from maintaining ties of kinship, there is no harm on her but he will bear the sin for preventing her... read more here.

A wife should strive hard to obey her husband

Question 45: I got married two years ago and I am still a student. I have been living with my family since then. I gave birth to a baby. However, I sometimes feel that I hate my husband and I keep telling myself that I should not and will not think this way, but I always return to the same idea, then regret afterwards, but to no avail. My question is: What should I do with my husband? It should be mentioned that he does not annoy me in any way, except if I am the one who makes the first move.

Answer: You should fear Allaah (Exalted be He), strive against yourself, and be a good companion to your husband. You should also guard his honor, money, and children, and fulfill all his duties. In order to do this, you should first seek Allaah’s Support, and then be patient, observe Salaah (Prayer), recite the Qur’aan, and say Adkaar (invocations and remembrances said at certain times on a regular basis) that are authentically reported from the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him)... read more here.

Advising a wife when she makes a mistake

Question 44: I have not found any comfort with my wife since I married her. She disagrees frequently and wants to go visit her family every day and she listens to what they say. When I bring her food, she prepares it reluctantly, and after preparing it, she tells me that she will go to sleep. Is this correct or not?

Answer: You should advise her and explain to her the marital rights she owes you. Treat her kindly and try to work with her family in this matter. If you fulfill all her rights over you, hopefully she will remedy her attitude and discharge her duties towards you. And it is Allaah Whose Help is sought... read more here.

Abstaining from having intimate relations with the husband due to the wife’s illness

Question 43: A woman has suffered from a psychological disorder since she was 11. It seems as if she is possessed by a Jinn (creatures created from fire). It is noteworthy that with Allaah’s Grace she is abiding by her Deen (Islaamic faith). She is married and has children, but now she keeps away from her husband and prevents him from having intercourse with her, because she always feels as if another man is having intercourse with her. She claims that a man has written some Aayaat (Qur’aanic verse) of Qur’aan for her and she has put them in a Mus-haf under her pillow. But she continues to suffer from this and adds that this happens to her in her dreams while sleeping at night. This is a severe problem that only Allaah knows how to overcome.

First: Is there any sin upon her?

Second: Is there any medical or Islaamic cure for this disease? Please advise, may Allaah reward you the best!

Answer: First: There is no sin upon her for what she sees in her dreams; having sexual intercourse with a man as a husband and wife, for the sleeper is not to be held responsible in Sharee`ah (Islaamic law). Yet, if she observes any discharge of Maniy (spermatic fluid); she should perform Ghusl (ceremonial bath). She should also enable her husband to have a sexual intercourse with her as much as she can but if she cannot or her husband waives his right to that; there is no sin upon her... read more here.

Husband misusing his wife’s obligation to obey him

Question 42: What is the Islaamic ruling on Bayt Al-Taa`ah (House of Obedience; a law that requires a wife to return to her husband’s house and to obey him) especially that some husbands make bad use of this law?

Answer: The basic rule states that the relationship between the spouses shall be based on kind treatment and honor, as Allaah (Exalted be He) says: …and live with them honourably. He (Glorified be He) also says: And they (women) have rights (over their husbands as regards living expenses) similar (to those of their husbands) over them (as regards obedience and respect) according to what is reasonable Each of the spouses has rights on the other that must be fulfilled. It is not permissible for either of them to harm the other in any way... read more here.

Obligation of good companionship among spouses

Question 41: My father is sixty five years old and my mother is of the same age. He abuses her verbally, and she leaves the house without his permission. As her children have grown up and gotten married, she has been living with them for five years now. She asks for Talaaq (divorce initiated by a husband), but my father refuses to divorce her, and he does not sustain her. What are the duties on both of them? Bear in mind that both of them are well-off. What is your advice for them? I am their eldest son, and I always advise them to forgive each other. May Allaah guide you to the benefit of Muslims.

Answer: Married couples should live together in kindness and treat each other well. It is not permissible for a husband to abuse his wife verbally, and it is not permissible for her to leave the house without his permission. Each one of them should fear Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) as He should be feared and observe His Boundaries... read more here.

Wife wishing to cut her hair although her husband refuses

Question 40: My sister wanted to cut her hair and told her husband, but he refuses to let her; what is your opinion on this?

Answer: It is obligatory on a woman to obey her husband in what is Ma‘roof (that which is judged as good, beneficial, or fitting by Islaamic law and Muslims of sound intellect), and not cutting her hair is obligatory on her out of obedience to her husband, as this is part of that which is Ma‘roof... read more here.

Wife abstaining from doing housework

Question 39: I have a wife and five children including infants and toddlers. My wife does not fulfill her household and marital duties nor takes care of the cleanliness of my children. She does not care about me and does not accept my advice or requests. For instance, she does not obey me when I call her to bed, and she leaves the house indifferently without my permission. Sometimes I return home and find the children crying, while she is not with them. I do not know where she goes when she is out. I wish she could do some household chores, such as cooking, making me tea or coffee, and doing the laundry, but she does not do any of these things; even worse she has aggressive manners. What should I do with this woman? Some people have suggested something that would cure her and make her obedient to me. Is this cure permissible? What should I do with this wife? May Allaah reward you best and guide you to goodness in this life and the Hereafter.

Answer: If the reality is as you mentioned, you should advise her and explain to her the rights of the husband on his wife and the rights of the children on their mother and you should do this in a kind and gentle way. Tell her that leaving her husband’s house without his permission is not permissible. Instruct her to fulfill her due rights towards you with peace and love, and fulfill her rights. Ask her parents and Mahrams (unmarriageable relatives) to help you... read more here.

Taking the husband’s permission to offer Tahajjud

Question 38: Is it permissible for a woman to offer Qiyaam-ul-Layl (optional Prayer at night) and Tahajjud (optional late night Prayer) without her husband’s permission when he is present? Bear in mind that she only offers themafter her husband is asleep. She also took his permission once to observe supererogatory Sawm (fasting), and he agreed and told her she can perform any act of religious devotion. Should she take his permission again, or is the first time enough?

Answer: Firstly, a woman should keep up Qiyaam-ul-Layl and encourage her husband to keep it up. It is related by Aboo Daawood and Al-Nasaa’ee that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, May Allaah show mercy to a man who wakes up at night, offers Prayers, and wakes his wife up. And if she refuses to wake up, he sprinkles water on her face. May Allaah show mercy to a woman who wakes up at night, offers Prayers, and wakes her husband up. And if he refuses to wake up, she sprinkles water on his face.”... read more here.

Abstaining from having sexual intercourse with drunken husband

Question 37: Is it permissible for a wife to desert her drunken husband’s marital bed and refuse him when he wants her, as she cannot bear his drunkenness? Is she considered a sinner for refusing to sleep with him and is cursed by the angels until morning as stated in the Hadeeth?

Answer: If the reality is as you mentioned, she is not considered a sinner. She must advise him and if he performs Tawbah (repentance to Allaah), praise be to Allaah. However, if he refuses and persists in committing this evil, she may ask for Talaaq (divorce initiated by a husband) to escape this Munkar (that which is unacceptable or disapproved of by Islaamic law and Muslims of sound intellect). If he refuses to divorce her, she may refer the matter to the court... read more here.

Optional night Prayer as a barrier to the spouses having sexual intercourse

Question 36: My husband asks me to stay up at night with him, but I refuse to do this as I like to maintain Qiyaam-ul-Layl (optional Prayer at night), which is why I tend to sleep early. Is this counted as an act of disobedience to my husband?

Answer: You should obey your husband in Ma`roof (that which is judged as good, beneficial, or fitting by Islaamic law and Muslims of sound intellect), but if he asks you to stay up at night with him in a way that prevents you from offering Fajr prayer (Dawn prayer) or asks you to watch whatever is Munkar (that which is unacceptable or disapproved of by Islaamic law and Muslims of sound intellect), in this case you should not obey him. Otherwise, he should be obeyed in anything else even if this results in missing Qiyaam-ul-Layl, for it is a Sunnah (supererogatory act of worship following the example of the Prophet), but obeying the husband is an obligation... read more here.

Woman deserting her husband’s bed

Question 35: Is it permissible for a wife to refuse having sexual intercourse with her husband when he desires it? What is the ruling if she refuses merely out of stubbornness?

Answer: It is not permissible for a wife to disobey her husband when he wishes to be intimate with her except for a Shar`ee (Islaamically lawful) reason, such as menstruation. It is related in the Two Saheeh (authentic) Books of Hadeeth (i.e. Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim) on the authority of Aboo Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) who narrated that the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) said... read more here.