Obligation of making up for the missed days of Ramadaan for anyone who did not fast without an excuse

Question: If a woman does not observe Sawm (Fast) during Ramadaan due to post-partum period, pregnancy, or breastfeeding and then later she becomes in a good state of health, is it better for her to observe Sawm or to give Sadaqah (voluntary charity) to make up for the days she has missed?

Answer: Any woman who is unable to observe Sawm during Ramadan due to postpartum period must fast to make up for the missed days of Sawm. In the case of a woman who is pregnant however, she should observe Sawm during her pregnancy, except if it is feared that Sawm will cause harm to the mother or to the fetus. In this case, the mother is allowed not to observe Sawm during Ramadan, and she should make up for these missed days of Sawm after giving birth to the child and after the post-partum period..read more here.

A pregnant woman bleeding during Ramadaan

Question: I was pregnant during the blessed month of Ramadaan. I had a vaginal bleeding on Ramadaan 20th, but I neither ate nor drank, i.e., I kept fasting. During my stay in the hospital I broke my Sawm (Fast) for four days. After Ramadaan I made up for the days of Sawm I missed. Should I make up for them again, bearing in mind that I have not given birth yet? Please advise me, may Allaah reward you.

Answer: Your observing Sawm while having vaginal bleeding during pregnancy has no effect on the validity of your Sawm, just like the case of Istihaadah (abnormal vaginal bleeding outside the menstrual or post-partum period). Therefore, your Sawm is valid. Moreover, your making up for the four days you missed during your stay in hospital after Ramadaan discharges the obligation, and you do not have to fast them again..read more here.

A woman who did not fast in Ramadaan for three years

Question: My wife has given birth to a child at the beginning of the blessed month of Ramadaan for the last three years. In other words, she has not observed Sawm (fast) for the last three months of Ramadaan. Please, inform us what the expiation is.

Answer: She must proceed to make up for the Sawm she has missed for three successive months of Ramadaan. In addition, she has to feed a needy person half a Saa` (1 Saa`=3 kg. Approx.) of wheat, rice or any other local staple foodstuff per day she missed. This is because she delayed making up for the Sawm she missed till another month of Ramadaan has started – if she delayed making it up while having the ability to do so..read more here.

Fasting in the postpartum period after miscarriage

Question: A pregnant woman experienced a miscarriage one day during Ramadaan. Yet she continued observing Sawm (Fast) on this day. What is the ruling on the validity of Sawm on the day in question? On the same day after Iftar (breaking the Fast), she went to the hospital where she underwent an operation for cleaning her womb, which prevented her from observing Sawm on the next day.

What is the ruling on this case? Now after leaving the hospital, should she wait until she becomes pure from postpartum blood or should she observe Sawm? If she should not observe Sawm, how long should she wait? Should she only make up for these days or feed needy people as well?

Answer: If the miscarried fetus was somewhat formed into a human shape, that is, having limbs, such as hands, legs and the like, she should wait until she becomes pure from the postpartum blood or else she should wait for forty days, then she can take after-post-partum bleeding Ghusl (full ritual bath) and perform Salaah (Prayer). She must make up for the days of Ramadaan during which she did not observe Sawm. She does not have to feed the needy if she makes up for the missed days before next Ramadaan..read more here.

A pregnant woman’s concession not to fast during Ramadaan

Question: Is it permissible for a pregnant woman to forgo Sawm (Fast) during the daytime hours of Ramadaan? Is she supposed to refrain from observing Sawm during a certain month of her pregnancy or throughout the entire pregnancy? If she has a Rukhsah (concession) to forgo Sawm, is she required to make up for these missed days of Sawm or should she feed the needy instead? What is the amount of food she should give if she is supposed to feed the needy? I live in a hot country; does Sawm have an effect on a pregnant woman in such hot countries? We hope that you will answer our question.

Answer: If a pregnant woman fears for her own safety or for that of the foetus while fasting during Ramadaan, then she is allowed to forgo Sawm. She is only required to make up for the days of Sawm that she missed, whether she lives in a hot country or not. This is not restricted to certain months of her pregnancy. Rather it is her condition that should be taken into consideration and the hardship that she might encounter, regardless of how long she has been pregnant. The case of the pregnant woman is similar in this respect to the case of a person who is ill and is unable to observe Sawm. Allaah says: …and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Sawm (fasts) must be made up] from other days.... read more here.

The passage of years without observing Sawm or making up for the missed days

Question: My wife has to make up for three or four months of Sawm (Fast) as she broke her Sawm during three or four months of Ramadaan because of pregnancy and breastfeeding. She still breastfeeds her baby. Is she permitted to feed needy people instead of making up for these months as she finds great hardship in making up for three or four months of Ramadaan that she missed?

Answer: There is no blame on her for delaying making up for the days of Sawm that she missed due to the hardships of pregnancy and breastfeeding. She has to hasten in making up for these days of Sawm that she missed as soon as possible. She is similar, in this case, to a person who is sick. Allaah (Exalted be He) says, …and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Sawm (fasts) must be made up] from other days.... read more here.

A pregnant woman discharging some fluid during Ramadaan

Question: A woman was in her ninth month of pregnancy during Ramadaan. At the beginning of the month, she would have a white vaginal discharge with no traces of blood and she would, nevertheless, fast. This happened ten years ago.

My question is: “Should she make up for these days, bearing in mind that she fasted in spite of the white vaginal discharge she had?”

Answer: If the case is as you mentioned, her Sawm is valid and she does not have to make up for these days... read more here.

A pregnant or a breastfeeding woman fearing for her health or her baby’s during Ramadaan

Question: If a pregnant woman or a breastfeeding mother does not fast Ramadaan because she is afraid that fasting might cause harm to herself or to her baby what should she do? Should she make up for the missed days of fasting in addition to feeding the poor, make up for the missed days of fasting without feeding the poor, or feed the poor without making up for the missed days? What should she do in this case?

Answer: If a pregnant woman is afraid that fasting will be harmful to her or to the fetus, then she is not obliged to fast. She is only required to make up the missed days of fasting, as her case is similar to that of someone who is sick and cannot fast, or one who fears that fasting may cause him harm. Allaah says: …and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Sawm (fasts) must be made up] from other days.... read more here.

Observance or non-observance of Sawm for a pregnant woman in Ramadaan

Question: I was pregnant during Ramadaan so I did not fast during the entire month. Later on, I fasted for one complete month to make up for the days I missed in addition to giving Sadaqah (voluntary charity). I was pregnant again during a subsequent Ramadaan and thus did not fast. Later on, I made up for these missed fasts by fasting every other day for two months without giving Sadaqah. Does Sawm (Fast) in this manner necessitate paying Sadaqah?

Answer: If a pregnant woman is worried lest Sawm should harm her or her embryo, she is allowed to refrain from Sawm, provided that she makes up for the days of Sawm she misses. A pregnant woman falls under the same ruling as a sick person who cannot fast or fears that Sawm may cause them harm. Allaah (Exalted be He) says: …and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Sawm (fasts) must be made up] from other days.… read more here.

Fasting after bleeding of miscarriage

Question: A woman miscarried during the third month of her pregnancy on the first day of Ramadaan. She did not fast for the first five days of the month because of the bleeding after the miscarriage. Blood continued to remain in her vagina; however it did not pass the vaginal opening. Thus, she performed her prayers and continued fasting for the next twenty five days. Is her Sawm (fasting) and Salaah (prayer) valid in this case? It should also be mentioned that she performed Wudoo’ (ablution) for each prayer. Even until now she is still in the same condition; (there is still blood and wetness inside the vagina). She also mentioned that she was using contraceptives and tablets to prevent the onset of menstruation before becoming pregnant.

Answer: If the reality is as you mentioned with regard to the miscarriage taking place during the third month, then this blood is not considered postpartum bleeding. This is because that which she miscarried was still just a clot as opposed to being a human being at that time. Therefore, her Sawm and Salaah are valid even though she finds blood in her vagina so long as she performs Wudoo’ for every Salaah as was mentioned in your question.

Also, she is required to make up for the Sawm and Salaah she missed for five days. This bleeding is considered to be Istihaadah (abnormal vaginal bleeding outside the menstrual or post-partum period)… read more here.