The meaning of extolling Allaah

Question: What is the meaning of extolling Allaah?

Answer: Extolling Allaah means praising Him a lot, i.e., (saying): You are Al-Raheem (The Most Merciful), You are Al-Rahmaan (The Most Gracious), You are Al-Jawad (The Bountiful),You are Al-Kareem (The Generous), You are Al-Muhsin (The Beneficent), You are the Possessor of all goodness, You favored (Your) Servants, You are the One sought for help in distress, in Your Hand is all goodness, and You have the full disposition of everything. This is Extolment, that is, expressing praise of Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He)... read more here.

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Ruling on composing poems and prose in praise of Allaah

Question: Is it permissible to compose poems in praise of Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) with the intention of drawing nearer to Him?

Answer: Yes, it is permissible to praise Him in poetry and prose as the Sahaabah (Companions of the Prophet, may Allaah be pleased with them) and others did... read more here.

The meaning of the Hadeeth “Allaah created Adam in His Image”

Question: A Hadeeth was reported from the Prophet (peace be upon him) in which he prohibits making the face ugly, and states that Allaah (Exalted be He) created Aadam in His image. What is the correct belief regarding this Hadeeth?

Answer: This Hadeeth is authentically reported from the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) in which he said: If any of you strikes (another), let them avoid the face, for Allaah created Aadam in His image In another narration: In the Image of Al-Rahmaan (The Gracious) This does not mean Tashbeeh (comparison) or Tamtheel (likening Allaah’s Attributes to those of His Creation). According to the view of scholars, this means that Allaah (Exalted be He) created Aadam hearing, seeing and talking as He wishes. These are also the Attributes of Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He), for He is All-Hearer, All-Seer, Speaker and has a Face (Glorified and Exalted be He). Yet, that does not mean Tashbeeh or Tamtheel, since the Image of Allaah is completely different from the image of any creature. Rather, it means that He is Hearer, Seer, has a Face and Speaker if He wishes. Similarly, Allaah (Exalted be He) created Adam in the same image; possessing hearing, sight, face, hands and feet and speech when he wants to talk. Yet, his hearing is not like Allaah’s and so is his sight and speech. His face does not also resemble Allaah’s Face for there is no match to Allaah’s Attributes (may He be Exalted and Glorified). Rather, they befit Him (Glorified be He) alone. The servants (of Allaah) have characteristics that befit them as well. Such characteristics are doomed to extinction, defect and weakness. However, the Attributes of Allaah are Perfect without defect, weakness or extinction. For that, Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) says: There is nothing like Him; and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer. He (Glorified be He) says: “And there is none co-equal or comparable unto Him.” Accordingly, it is not permissible to strike or make the face ugly... read more here.

Saying: “May He be Glorified and Exalted” and “the Lord of all lords”

Question: A questioner is asking: We always say, “Allaah, may He be Glorified and Exalted; Allaah, the Lord of all lords.” What is the meaning of ‘may He be Glorified and Exalted’ and ‘the Lord of all lords’?

Answer: “May He be Glorified and Exalted” means that He is attributed by Glory, Might and Exaltedness, for He has the Absolute Might. Allaah (Exalted be He) says: But honour, power and glory belong to Allâh, and to His Messenger (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) It means: Subjugation, Pre-dominance and Power. “May He be Glorified” also means that He is characterized by Glory, Loftiness, and Haughtiness (Glorified and Exalted be He). He is The Great, The Sublime, and The Mighty Who has the Utmost Loftiness (Glorified and Exalted be He). He is Supreme above His slaves and Predominant over them. He is characterized by Absolute Majesty and Grandeur... read more here.

Did the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) see Allaah?

Question: Is there any proof that the Messenger (peace be upon him) saw Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He)? Is there any proof that people will see Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) on the Day of Resurrection?

Answer: The Prophet (peace be upon him) did not see His Lord in this world. Prophet Moosaa (Moses, peace be upon him) requested Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) to show Himself so that Moosaa could look upon Him, but Allaah (Exalted be He) said: You cannot see Me Furthermore, our Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: You should know that none of you can see His Lord until he dies. The Prophet (peace be upon him) did not see His Lord and he was asked about this When ‘Aboo Dar said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah! Have you seen your Lord?’ He (peace be upon him) replied, ‘I saw (only) light.’ According to another wording: Light – how could I see Him! (Related by Muslim in his Saheeh [Authentic Hadith Book])... read more here.

Seeing Allaah on the Day of Resurrection

Question: There is a debate regarding the issue of sight; i.e., seeing Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) on the Day of Resurrection. There is a strong argument about that. Some people say that Allaah (Exalted be He) will not be seen, while others claim the contrary. Each party cites the Hadeeth and Aayaat by which refute the opinion of the other. Please advise us in this regard. May Allaah reward you well!

Answer: The opinion of Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah (adherents to the Sunnah and the Muslim mainstream), and the Ijmaa` (consensus) of the Sahaabah (Companions of the Prophet Muhammad) may Allaah be pleased with them, and Ahl-ul-Sunnah who succeeded them states that Allaah (Glorified be He) will be seen on the Day of Resurrection. The Mu’mineen (believers) will see Him and in Jannah (paradise) as well. Scholars have unanimously agreed upon this. Furthermore, scholars among the Sahaabah and other Muslims who belong to Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah agreed on this too. This is also indicated by the Noble Qur’aan and the purified authentic Sunnah (whatever is reported from the Prophet). Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) says: Some faces that Day shall be Naadirah (shining and radiant). which means bright and beautiful Looking at their Lord (Allaah). looking at His Glorious Face (Glorified and Exalted be He). He (Glorified and Exalted be He) also says : For those who have done good is the best (reward, i.e. Paradise) and even more (i.e. having the honour of glancing at the Countenance of Allaah جل جلاله). It is authentically reported that the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) said... read more here.

The Hadeeth Qudsee are Allaah’s Words that are not created

Question: Are the Hadeeth Qudsee (Revelation from Allaah in the Prophet’s words) not created for being the Words of Allaah?

Answer: Yes, the Hadeeth Qudsee are Allaah’s Words that are not created, they are similar to the Qur’aan such as Allaah’s Saying (Glorified and Exalted be He) in respect of what the Prophet (peace be upon him) narrated from Him (Glorified be He): O My slaves, I have forbidden Dulm (injustice) to Myself and made it forbidden amongst you, so do not wrong one another. O My slaves all of you are misguided except those whom I guide, so ask Me for guidance, and I will guide you. In addition to other authentic Hadeeth Qudsee which are all the Words of Allaah... read more here.

Ruling on those who claim that the Qur’aan is Created

Question: A questioner asks: What is the ruling on the person who believes that the Qur’aan is created, and that people will not see Allaah (Exalted be He) on the Day of Resurrection? It is noteworthy that most of those who adopt this school do not agree or believe that the Qur’aan is created, they say: We do not believe that the Qur’aan is created, but we belong to this school following our fathers. What is the ruling on the person who believes in the creation of the Qur’aan? Is such a person considered to have seceded from Islaam? Please advise us in this regard. May Allaah reward you well!

Answer: Yes, those who claim that the Qur’aan is created, are, by doing so, repudiating that it is the Words of Allaah, and this is a major act of Kufr (disbelief). The same applies to the one who claims that Allaah (Exalted be He) will not be seen in the Hereafter. Whoever denies the seeing of Allaah (Exalted be He) in the Hereafter or Jannah (Paradise), commits a major Kufr, since he will be recanting Allaah (Exalted be He) and His Messenger (peace be upon him). Therefore, if any sect or a group claim that the Qur’aan is created, this means that it is not the Words of Allaah; rather, they are created words. While Allaah has clarified that it (i.e., the Qur’aan) is His Words (Glorified and Exalted be He) in His Saying (Glorified and Exalted be He): And if anyone of the Mushrikoon (polytheists, idolaters, pagans, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allaah) seeks your protection, then grant him protection so that he may hear the Word of Allaah (the Qur’aan) He (Exalted be He) also says: They want to change Allaah’s Words. .

Furthermore, the Messenger (peace be upon him) used to tell people: Is there a man who can protect me so that I can convey the Words of my Lord He would walk around among them in Makkah before Hijrah (Prophet’s migration to Madinah) asking their refuge to be able to convey the Words of Allaah. What is meant here is that the Messenger (peace be upon him) and all the Sahaabah (Companions of the Prophet) declared that the Qur’aan is the Words of Allaah, and the Qur’aan itself showed that. Thus, anyone who claims that the Qur’aan is created will be a Kaafir (disbeliever) who belies Allaah, His Messenger and the Ijma` (consensus) of Muslims. The same applies to the person who denies the Attributes of Allaah or denies seeing Him or that He is not All-Wise, All-knowing, Mighty, All-Able. Whoever does this will be a Kaafir like Al-Jahmiyyah, (a deviant Islamic sect denying some Attributes of Allaah, claiming they are human qualities and cannot be ascribed to Allaah)... read more here.

The Qur’aan is the Word of Allaah and is not created

Question: One of our listeners writes: Our brother who is a knowledge-seeker from Jeddah has some concerns and this is one of them. He says: Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah (those adhering to the Sunnah and the Muslim main body) are known for their position that the Qur’aan is the Word of Allah which was revealed and not created. It originated from Him and to Him it will return. Regarding the letters with which the Qur’aan was written: Are they not created? Are they Arabic letters? Was the Qur’aan written in Al-Lawh Al-Mahfoozh (the Preserved Tablet) with these letters, or were they developed by the Arabs? Please clarify the Madh-hab (juristic school/School of Jurisprudence) of the Salaf (righteous predecessors) regarding this issue. I also hope that you will reply to this paradox if it is considered to be so.

Answer: This question has been answered by Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah, as they all agreed that Qur’aan is the Word of Allaah, that was revealed and not created, from Him it originated and to Him it will return. The Qur’aan’s letters and meanings are Allaah’s Speech as He has spoken it. It was heard by Jibreel (Gabriel) and conveyed by Muhammad (peace be upon him).The entire Qur’aan, its letters and meanings is the Word of Allaah; therefore, whoever claims that it is created commits Kufr (disbelief) according to the ruling of Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah. The whole Qur’aan is Allaah’s Word, its letters and meanings. Furthermore, it also exists in Al-Lawh-ul-Mahfoozh with the same letters and meanings, as He (Glorified be He) states: Nay! This is a Glorious Qur’aan, (Inscribed) in Al-Lawh Al-Mahfooz (The Preserved Tablet)! Therefore, as previously mentioned, the entire Qur’an is the Word of Allah that was sent down not created, from Him it originated and to Him it will return, along with its letters and meanings as stipulated by Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah and according to the declaration of ‘Aboo Al-`Abbaas Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) in his books, such as Al-`Aqeedah Al-Waasitiyyah in which he mentioned the `Aqeedah (creed) of Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah. Again the whole Qur’aan; its letters and meaning, is Allaah’s Word which Jibreel conveyed to the honorable Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Allaah also confirmed its existence in Al-Lawh Al-Mahfoozh as He clarified in His Book (Glorified and Exalted be He). Thus, whoever denies this violates the Sharee`ah (Islaamic Law), innovates in the Deen (religion) of Islaam and opposes Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah.

QuestionA questioner from Yemen asks: Did Al-Bukhaaree (may Allaah have mercy on him) declare that the Qur’aan is Allaah’s Word that was not created but its utterance is created?

AnswerThe Qur’aan is the Word of Allaah. Al-Bukhaaree and others declared that it is the Word of Allaah. It is revealed not created, but if he said that his utterance of the Qur’aan is created, this is possible. This is why scholars chose not to delve into this matter. Furthermore, if he meant with that his voice, it is also created. On the other hand, if he meant by that his speech, this is wrong. For that, many scholars reprehended saying that as it could be misleading. But, if someone says that their voice is created but the Qur’aan is the Word of Allaah along with clarification, there is no harm in this. However, as previously mentioned, some scholars censured saying that without explanation. On the other side, some of them approved of this regarding the intention of uttering. In conclusion, the uttered words, which are the Qur’aan, are Allaah’s Word that is revealed not created, whether it is recited from memory, pronounced, or written. Whatever the case may be it is the Word of Allaah that is not created... read more here.

Allaah’s Speech to Moses (peace of Allaah be upon him)

Question: How many times did Allah speak to Moosaa (Moses, peace be upon him)? Did He speak to him at the same place where He first spoke to him, if this happened more than once?

Answer: Allaah knows best, Allaah (Exalted be He) says: …and to Moosaa (Moses) Allaah spoke directly. As for the number of times; Allaah (Exalted be He) knows that best, as I do not know about the number of times.

Question: A listener is asking: In what language will Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) speak to His Servants on the Day of Resurrection? Please clarify this to us. May Allaah reward you well!

AnswerThe apparent meaning of the texts reported from the Prophet (peace be upon him) indicates that Allaah will address people in Arabic, and He (may He be Exalted and Glorified) knows best... read more here.

Attribute of Al-Sabr (patience) and Al-Hilm (forbearance)

Question: What is the difference between Al-Hilm (forbearance) and Al-Sabr (patience), which is one of Allaah’s Attributes?

Answer: Al-Hilm is to delay the punishment for a servant (granting them respite so that they may repent from their sins). Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) is described as Al-Halim (the All-Forbearing) and the Patient as narrated in the following Hadeeth Saheeh (authentic Hadeeth): None is more patient over offending words (he hears) than Allaah. They ascribe a son to Him whereas He gives and provides them with sustenance. Al-Sabr is the delay of imposing the punishments. Although many people are transgressors, unjust, and commit Shirk (associating others with Allaah in His Divinity or worship), Allaah does not hasten their punishment. Allaah (Exalted be He) says: And most of mankind will not believe even if you desire it eagerly. And:And if you obey most of those on the earth, they will mislead you far away from Allaah’s Path. He gives them respite, as He (Glorified and Exalted be He) says, Consider not that Allaah is unaware of that which the Zaalimoon (polytheists, wrong-doers) do, but He gives them respite up to a Day when the eyes will stare in horror. This Aayah combines both characteristics: patience and forbearance read more here.

The Manner in which Allaah Descends

Question: The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated: “Our Lord descends during the last third of the night.” Does Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) descend? Or is it His Mercy that descends?

Answer: It was stated in many Hadeeths Mutawattir (a Hadeeth reported by a significant number of narrators throughout the chain of narration, whose agreement upon a lie is impossible) which were recorded in the Two Sahih (authentic) Books of Hadeeth (i.e. Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim) and other books of Hadeeth that Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) descends to the lowest heaven every night. The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated: Related by Al-Bukhaaree, Book on Friday, Chapter on supplication during Salaah late at night, no. 1145; and Muslim, Book on travelers’ Salaah and Salaah shortening , chapter on recommendation of supplication and remembrance of Allaah late at night and the answer thereto, no. 758. Our Lord descends every night to the lowest heaven during the last third of the night, and asks: ‘Who is supplicating to Me that I may answer him? Who is asking (something) from Me that I may grant it to him? Who is asking Me for forgiveness that I may forgive him? Allaah states that He descends in a manner which none except He knows as none knows the manner of His Istiwaa’ (Allaah’s rising over the Throne in a manner that befits Him) except Him. He descends as He Wills and in a manner that befits His Majesty and which no one knows. We accept the fact of His Descending, but without Takyeef (describing the manner of Allaah’s Attributes), Tamtheel (likening Allaah’s Attributes to those of His Creation), or giving extra explanations. The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated: Our Lord descends every night to the lowest heaven during the last third of the night, and asks: ‘Who is supplicating to Me that I may answer him? Who is asking (something) from Me that I may grant it to him? Who is asking Me for forgiveness that I may forgive him? In another wording: Is there anyone who asks Me (something) that I may grant (it) to him? Is there anyone who supplicates to Me that I may answer him? Is there anyone who asks Me forgiveness that I may forgive him? And: Is there anyone who asks for forgiveness that he would be forgiven? read more here.

Explaining the meaning of Allaah’s Ma`iyyah with His creature

Question: I have read many books on Tawheed (belief in the Oneness of Allaah / monotheism). Would you recommend a book for us to read on the Names and Attributes of Allaah and the creed of Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah (adherents to the Sunnah and the Muslim mainstream) in this respect? Is it religiously acceptable to say: “Allaahu ma`a Khalqeehee bi `Ilmih wa bi Qudratih wa bi Iradtih [Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) is with His Creation by His Knowledge, Power, and Will]”, as the preposition letter ‘Bi’ (Lit. by) in Arabic entails extreme closeness? Please direct us regarding this matter!

Answer: The Qur’aan is the best and noblest Book that clarifies the Names and Attributes of Allaah and acknowledges His Rights on His Servants. It is the last and final Revelation of Allaah. It is the greatest, the most honorable, the best, and the most reliable Book for truth seekers. Verily, true guidance, clear proofs, and all goodness lie in the Qur’an.The authentic Hadeeths of the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him), which were compiled and recorded in the Two Saheeh (authentic) Books of Hadeeth (i.e. Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim) and the Sunan (Hadeeth compilations classified by jurisprudential themes) are also a great reference on this topic. Besides this, you may refer to books compiled by reliable scholars, which contain the sayings of the Salaf (righteous predecessors), such as the books written by the renowned Imams, such as Al-Muwatta’ by Imaam Maalik, Al-Musnad by Imam Ahmad, and other books composed by distinguished scholars. These books relate the authentic Hadeeths and the Athar (narrations from the Companions) of the Salaf. You may also refer to books on the Names and Attributes of Allaah written by the followers of these scholars such as... read more here.

Ruling on believing that “Allaah is everywhere”

Question: A questioner from Sudan asks: “Your Eminence, Shaykh, it is known that believing in Allaah’s Names, and Attributes, like Istiwaa’ (Allaah’s rising over the Throne in a manner that befits Him), is one of the conditions of sound Islaamic `Aqeedah (creed), but there are some people in some countries who believe that “Allaah is everywhere”. Can you give them a word of advice? Also, are they rendered Kaafirs (disbelievers) if they die holding such belief? Please provide us with a detailed Fatwaa’ (legal opinion issued by a qualified Muslim scholar)! May Allaah reward you well!

Answer: This issue is of great importance. Muslims should pay much attention to it. It is elaborated, and made clear by Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) in the Noble Qur’an that one should believe in Allaah’s being in the heavens, and in Istiwaa’ (Allaah’s rising over the Throne in a manner that befits Him). There are seven Aayaat (Qur’aanic verses) that give evidence for Allaah’s (Glorified and Exalted be He) Istiwaa’ in a manner which befits His Majesty and Greatness: this manner does not resemble any of His Creatures. Allaah says in Soorah Al-‘A`raaf: Indeed your Lord is Allaah, Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days, and then He rose over (Istawaa’) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty). He brings the night as a cover over the day, seeking it rapidly, and (He created) the sun, the moon, the stars subjected to His Command. Surely, His is the Creation and Commandment. Blessed is Allaah, the Lord of the ‘Alamîn (mankind, jinn and all that exists)! In Soorah Taahaa, Allaah (Exalted be He) says: The Most Gracious (Allaah) rose over (Istawaa’ the (Mighty) Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty). So, Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah (adherents to the Sunnah and the Muslim mainstream) believe in what is mentioned in these Aayaat, namely, Allaah’s Istiwaa’ and loftiness in a manner that befits His Majesty, and Greatness... read more here.

Replying to question “where is Allaah”?

Question: When asked where Allaah is, some say that He is everywhere. What is the Shar`ee (Islaamically lawful) correct reply to this question?

Answer: It is Waajib (obligatory) upon whomever is asked where Allaah is to give the same reply which the bondmaid gave to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) when he asked her this question. A man who wanted to free his bondmaid brought her to the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him).The Prophet (peace be upon him) asked her: “Where is Allaah?” She said: “In the heavens” He asked, “Who am I?” She said, “The Messenger of Allaah.” He then said to her master: “Set her free, for she is a Mu’minah (female believer) .” Therefore, it is Waajib upon whoever is asked where Allaah is to say, “Allaah is in the Heavens above the `Arsh (Allaah’s Throne).” Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) says: Do you feel secure that He, Who is over the heaven (Allaah) And: Or do you feel secure that He, Who is over the heaven (Allaah) Allaah is high above His `Arsh. He (Glorified and Exalted be He) says read more here.

Doctrine of Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah regarding Allaah’s Attribute of Highness

Question: A questioner from Al-Hawtah asks: What is the doctrine of Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah (adherents to the Sunnah and the Muslim mainstream) regarding Allaah’s Attribute of `Uluw (Highness)?

Answer: Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah believe in Allaah’s Attribute of Highness. They believe that Allaah (Glorified be He) rose over His Throne and is high above all His creation. Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) states: So the judgement is only with Allaah, the Most High, the Most Great! , …and He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them. And He is the Most High, the Most Great. and: Indeed, your Lord is Allaah, Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days, and then He rose over (Istawaa’) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty). He (Glorified be He) states: The Most Gracious (Allaah) rose over (Istawaa’) the (Mighty) Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty). and: To Him ascend (all) the goodly words, and the righteous deeds exalt it (i.e. the goodly words are not accepted by Allaah unless and until they are followed by good deeds) in addition to other Aayaat (Qur’anic verses) to the same effect. Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah firmly believe that Allaah rose over His Throne and is exalted above His creation. Al-hamdu lillaah [All praise is due to Allaah], there is no difference of opinion between them in this regard.

Question: A questioner from Chad asks: Where is Allaah? Is He over His `Arsh (Throne) or is He everywhere? What is the ruling on one who claims that Allaah is everywhere?

AnswerAllaah (Exalted be He) rose over His `Arsh and is high above His creation, according to Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah. All the messengers (peace be upon them) taught that Allaah rose over His `Arsh and is above all the Creation. Allaah (Exalted be He) states: The Most Gracious (Allaah) rose over (Istawâ) the (Mighty) Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty). , Do you feel secure that He, Who is over the heaven (Allaah) , To Him ascend (all) the goodly words, and the righteous deeds exalt it (i.e. the goodly words are not accepted by Allaah unless and until they are followed by good deeds) and: The angels and the Rooh [Jibrîl (Gabriel)] ascend to Him in a Day the measure whereof is fifty thousand years. Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) states: Indeed, your Lord is Allaah, Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days, and then He rose over (Istawaa’) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty). Allaah mentioned in seven Aayaat that He (Exalted be He) is over the Throne. He rose over it in a manner befitting His Majesty as He is not like any of His creation in terms of Istiwsa’ (Allash’s rising over the Throne in a manner that befits Him) or in any of His Attributes. Allaah (Exalted be He) states: There is nothing like Him; and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer. He (Exalted be He) also… read more here.

The meaning of Allaah’s `Arsh

Question: What is the meaning of Allaah’s `Arsh (Allaah’s Throne)?

Answer: According to Muslim scholars, and the Arabic language, `Arsh means a throne or a throne belonging to a king. The `Arsh of Allaah is an extremely large and great Throne; it is the greatest thing created by Allaah. It has four legs, and is carried by Angles. Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) is above the `Arsh as He (Glorified and Exalted be He) says about Himself: The Most Gracious (Allaah) rose over (Istawaa’) the (Mighty) Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty). And: Indeed, your Lord is Allaah, Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days, and then He rose over (Istawaa’) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty). Thus, it is a significantly large `Arsh; none knows how great the size of its magnificence is except Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) Who created it (but we are told by the Prophet that it is very large). This `Arsh is like a dome stretching over the entire universe; it is the ceiling of the whole universe. It is also the ceiling of Paradise; nothing is above it except Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He). Thus, `Arsh in Arabic is a very large throne, and the thrones of kings are called `Arsh. It is mentioned in the Qur’aan that the hoopoe told Sulaymaan (Solomon) that Bilqees (the Queen of Sabaa [or Sheebaa] in Yemen, who ruled during the lifetime of Prophet Sulaymaan. She and her people were sun worshippers): …and she has a great throne. Yet, Allaah’s `Arsh is unique; there is no similarity between Allaah’s `Arsh and those of His Creatures. In general, we know from Arabic that `Arsh is a generic name standing for a throne. However, none knows the essence, nature, substance, or greatness of Allaah’s `Arsh except Allaah Himself (Glorified and Exalted be He). Yet, authentic Hadeeths of the Prophet (peace be upon him) are our authority in this matter... read more here.

The obligation of believing in Allaah’s Istiwaa’ over His `Arsh

Question: A fellow Muslim asked me where Allaah is. I replied that He is above the heavens. He said: “What do you say about Allaah’s Saying: His Kursee extends over the heavens and the earth?” and he mentioned several other Aayaat (Qur’aanic Verses) to that effect. He added that if we say that Allaah is above the heavens, we would be determining a specific direction for Him. Respected Shaykh, what is your opinion in this regard? Are these questions among the ones we are forbidden to ask?

Answer: You have given the correct answer. When the Prophet (peace be upon him) was asked the same question, he (peace be upon him) said that Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) is above heaven and is exalted above His Creation. Allaah (Exalted and Glorified be He) says: Do you feel secure that He, Who is over the heaven (Allaah), will not cause the earth to sink with you, and then it should quake? Or do you feel secure that He, Who is over the heaven (Allaah), will not send against you a violent whirlwind? Then you shall know how (terrible) has been My Warning. And: The Most Gracious (Allaah) rose over (Istawaa’) the (Mighty) Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty). And: Indeed, your Lord is Allâh, Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days, and then He rose over (Istawaa’) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty).

Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) is high, over the `Arsh (Allaah’s Throne), and above all His Creation, according to all scholars of Ahl-ul-Sunnah (adherents to the Sunnah). Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah (adherents to the Sunnah and the Muslim mainstream, may Allaah be merciful to them) unanimously agreed that Allaah is above the heavens, over the `Arsh, and exalted above all His Creation. This was reported from the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him), the Sahaabah (Companions of the Prophet), and those who follow them in righteousness, and is in accordance with what was revealed in the Noble Qur’aan.

When one of the Sahaabah wanted to set free his female slave, he brought her to the Prophet (peace be upon him). The Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) asked her: “Where is Allaah?” She said: “Above the heavens.” He asked: “Who am I?” She said: “The Messenger of Allaah.” So he said to her master: “Set her free, for she is a believer.” (Related by Muslim in his Saheeh) The Messenger (peace be upon him) approved the reply given by the slave girl, which is the same as yours… read more here.

Actions and Attributes of Allaah

Question: A person from Chad asks: Are the actions of Allaah Qaadimah (eternal) or Haadithah (adaptable) or both? And if both, how is this so? May Allaah reward you with the best!

Answer: Basically, the actions (or Attributes describing the Actions) of Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) are Qaadimah; He ever has always had His Attributes even before creating anything. Thus, Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) has been, is and will always be the Creator. At all times He is the One able to do all that He wills. He does what He wills at the time He wills. But His Actions come to pass in relation to the conditions of His Creation. To illustrate this, Allaah created Adam from nothingness. Likewise, He created the Angels, heavens, the earth, and everything else. Thus, we know that Allaah is the Creator at all times, but He “creates” when He wills.

Another example, Allaah was pleased with the believers of the past and He will be so with those of the future; Allaah was angry with the disbelievers among the people of the past and he will be so with the disbelievers that will come. Thus, the basic characteristics of Allaah’s Action and Attributes are Qaadimah.

The Attributes of Allaah may be divided into two main categories:

The first category is Sifaat Dhaatiyah (Allaah’s Intrinsic and Essential Attributes), such as knowledge, hearing, sight, etc. These are the Attributes which do not cease to exist nor will ever cease to be descriptive of Him [Note: There is no similarity between Allaah’s Attributes and that of His Creatures]. Thus, Allaah (Glorified be He) has been and will always be described as the All-Hearer, the All-Seer, the All-Knower, the All-Powerful, etc. The second category is Sifaat Fi`liyah, and these are the Attributes, which describe the actions of Allah and are connected to His Maashi’ah (Will) in relation to the variable nature of His Creation. For instance, Allaah (Glorified be He) created the heavens and the earth, Aadam, Paradise, and Hellfire, etc., after they were all nothing… read more here.

‘Aqeedah of Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah about the Names and Attributes of Allaah

Question: We would like Your Eminence to explain the `Aqeedah (creed) of Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah (adherents to the Sunnah and the Muslim mainstream) regarding the Names and Attributes of Allaah. We have discussed this matter with our fellow brothers but each held a different view.

Answer: Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah believe in the Names and Attributes of Allaah as mentioned in the Qur’aan and the Sunnah (whatever is reported from the Prophet) and accept all of them without Tahreef (distortion of the meaning), Ta`teel (negation of the meaning or function of Allah’s Attributes), Takyeef (describing the manner of Allaah’s Attributes), or Tamtheel (likening Allaah’s Attributes to those of His Creation). This is the view of Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah, meaning the Sahaabah (Companions of the Prophet) and those who follow them. They believe in the Names and Attributes of Allaah mentioned in the Noble Qur’aan and the Saheeh (authentic) Sunnah and confirm them in a manner befitting Allah without Tahreef, Ta`teel, Takyeef, or Tamtheel.

Therefore, Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah do not distort, change or deny the Names and Attributes of Allaah like the Al-Jahmiyyah (a deviant Islaamic sect denying some Attributes of Allaah, claiming they are ascribed to people and cannot be ascribed to Allaah) and Al-Mu`tazilah (a deviant Islaamic sect claiming that those who commit major sins are in a state between belief and disbelief). They do not liken any of Allaah’s Attributes to those of His Creatures and do not define the manner in which they take form. However, they accept them as revealed without Tahreef, Ta`teel, Takyeef, or Tamtheel. For example, Allaah is described as the All-Merciful. However, He has mercy in a manner that suits Him which is unlike the mercy of His Creatures. We cannot perceive the form of such mercy. We accept His Attributes without addition or detraction.

Similarly, Allaah is described with Istiwaa’ (Allaah’s rising over the Throne in a manner that befitting His Majesty) The Most Gracious (Allaah) rose over (Istawaa) the (Mighty) Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty). Only He knows the manner in which He rose over His `Arsh (Allaah’s Throne). We do not say as the Al-Jahmiyyah who interpret the word Istiwaa’ to mean Istilaa’ (subjugation). Rather, we believe that Istiwaa’ means that He rose over and exalted Himself above His `Arsh in a manner that suits Him and which is unlike Istiwaa’ of His Creatures and which none save Him knows its manner… read more here.

Description of the belief of Sahaabah about the Names and Attributes of Allaah

Question: Your Eminence, what was the `Aqeedah (belief) of The Sahaabah (Companions of the Prophet) concerning the Attributes of Allaah, Tawheed (belief in the Oneness of Allaah/monotheism), Qur’aan, resurrection and requital? May Allaah reward you with the best!

Answer: Praise be to Allaah and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger, his family, his Companions, and those who follow in his footsteps. This is a vital and critical question. The Sahaabah (may Allaah be pleased with them) believed in the `Aqeedah (creed) pointed out in the Noble Qur’aan and the purified Sunnah (whatever is reported from the Prophet) of the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) regarding the Names and Attributes of Allaah, resurrection and requital, etc.

The Prophet (peace be upon him) taught the Sahaabah the `Aqeedah that was revealed in the Qur’aan: to believe in Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) as their true Lord who is the Only One worthy of worship and devote all acts of worship to Him. Salaah (Prayer), Du`aa’ (supplication), vows, prostration, and sacrificing, etc., should be only for Him. They believed that worship should be exclusively offered to Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) and not to a messenger or an angel.

In Jaahiliyyah (pre-Islamic time of ignorance), people used to worship, invoke, and seek the help of idols, trees, and stones. However, when Allaah sent His Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) to guide them to Islaam, they realized that devoting acts of worship to other than Allaah is Baatil (null and void) and major Shirk (associating others with Allaah in His Divinity or worship), and that all kinds of worship should rather be dedicated to Allaah alone.

They believed in the Names and Attributes of Allaah as they were revealed without Takyeef (descriptive designation of Allaah’s Attributes) or Tamtheel (likening Allaah’s Attributes to those of His Creation). They also believed that Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) is the All-Hearing, the All-Seeing, the All-Wise, the All-Knowing, the Most Merciful, the Most Beneficent who assumed Istiwaa’ (Allaah’s rising over the Throne in a manner that befits Him) above all His creation, and He is the Most High, the Most Great... read more here.

All the Names of Allaah are absolutely Perfect and Magnificent

Question: What should Mu’mins (believers) believe with respect to the Attributes of Allaah in a way that their belief is consistent with that of Salaf (the righteous predecessors)?

Answer: Mu’mins should believe that the Attributes of Perfection belong to Allaah Alone (Glorified and Exalted be He) and all His Names are absolutely Perfect and Magnificent. Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) says: And (all) the Most Beautiful Names belong to Allaah Therefore, Mu’mins should believe in the perfection of Allaah’s Attributes in which there is no shortcoming whatsoever and that none is comparable or similar to Him. Allaah (Glorified be He) says: “And there is none co-equal or comparable unto Him.” And: There is nothing like Him; and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer. And: Do you know of any who is similar to Him? and Then do not set up rivals unto Allaah (in worship) .

Every male and female Mu’min should believe that to Allaah belongs the absolutely Perfect and Magnificent Names and Sublime Attributes such as, Good Pleasure, Anger, Mercy, Benevolence, Bounty, Generosity, and Glory which are free from any imperfection. They should also believe that Allaah is the only One worthy of worship and that He is the Most Wise, the All-Knowing, etc. The Attributes which Allaah has ascribed to Himself are Perfect. He (Glorified and Exalted be He) is the All-Knowing, the Most Wise and the All-Mighty as He has described Himself. To Him belong the most Beautiful Names and their profound and perfect meanings. Nothing is equal, similar, or comparable to Him and for Him is the highest description… read more here.

Merit of memorizing the Magnificent Names of Allaah

Question: The Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) said: Allaah has 99 names; anyone who memorizes them will enter Jannah (Paradise). Does this mean that anyone who memorizes the Names of Allaah will enter Jannah? 

Answer: This is one of the Hadeeths that promise Jannah and speaks of virtues and good deeds. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Allaah has 99 names, one hundred less one. Anyone who learns them will enter Jannah. According to another narration: Anyone who memorizes them will enter Jannah. (Agreed upon by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim).

This Hadeeth urges us to consider carefully, ponder over, memorize and learn the Names of Allaah, so that we can benefit from their great meanings, gain Khushoo` (the heart being submissively attuned to the act of worship), obey Allaah and fulfill our duty towards Him(Glorified and Exalted be He).

Anyone who memorizes the Names of Allaah, fulfills their duties towards Him, and shuns the major sins will be admitted to Jannah while those who commit major sins subject themselves to Allaah’s Wrath and their fate is left to His Will: He may punish them or admit them to Jannah. Memorizing and learning the Names of Allaah is one means to enter Jannah if a person does not commit major sins. Attaining Jannah has certain conditions that must be fulfilled and certain obstacles that must be avoided. Committing sins is one of the obstacles which prevent one from entering Jannah with those who will enter first. A Muslim who commits sins and does not repent before death will eventually enter Jannah after being punished and purified… read more here.

Merits of learning Allaah’s Names and Attributes

Question: A questioner from Hadramawt is asking about `Aqeedah (creed): Your Eminence, is learning the Attributes of Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) Waajib (obligatory) or Mustahab (desirable)? Does learning these Attributes make any difference?

What is the ruling on those who believe that it is not Waajib to learn the Attributes because this might entangle one into asking why and what? What are the books you recommend in this regard?

Answer: Learning Allaah’s Names and Attributes from the Noble Qur’aan and the purified Sunnah (whatever is reported from the Prophet) is one of the best acts of worship that brings us nearer to Allaah. Learning Allah’s Names and Attributes helps one to glorify, praise and call on Allaah by His Names and Attributes. Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) says: And (all) the Most Beautiful Names belong to Allaah, so call on Him by them This indicates that we should know Allaah’s Names and Attributes and use them while calling on Him.

The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated: Allaah has ninety-nine Names; anyone who learns them will be admitted to Jannah (Paradise). This Hadeeth indicates that Allaah is Witr (‘Odd’, i.e. He is one) and He loves odd numbers. It also indicates that scholars and believers should learn the Names and Attributes of Allaah to invoke and praise Him and act upon them so that they enter Jannah.

A believer should know that to Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) belongs all Magnificent Names and that He has no peer, equal or rival. He is Perfect in His Essence, His Names, His Attributes and His Deeds and none is comparable to Him. Allaah (Glorified be He) says: There is nothing like Him; and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.

None of Allaah’s Attributes such as His Mercy, Highness, Istiwaa’ (Allah’s rising over the Throne in a manner that befits Him), Wrath , Laughter etc, is similar to ours… read more here.

Ruling on changing one’s name and being circumcised after converting to Islaam

Question: Is it necessary for new reverts to Islaam to change their names? Should an adult convert be circumcised?

Answer: It is permissible for new Muslims to change their names if they carry wrong or bad meanings, as this is a sign of conversion to Islaam. If one asks the reason for a convert having changed their name, in most cases, their names before converting to Islaam were not suitable, thus they felt it necessary to change them to Islaamic names such as Saalih, Ahmad, `Abdullaah, `Abdul-Rahmaan, Muhammad, etc. Names which suggest slavery to other than Allaah such as `Abdul- Messiah, `Abdul-Zahraa, or `Abd-Moosaa must be changed to `Abdullaah, `Abdul-Rahmaan and the like, as servitude is to Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) Alone. Therefore, it is best to change names which express servitude to other than Allaah and which are familiar and used by the Kuffaar (disbelievers) to Islaamic names… read more here.

Explaining the manner of entering the fold of Islaam

Question: Some people frequently say that Islaam is a condition for offering Salaah (Prayer) and performing Hajj, so can a person be a Muslim although they do not abide by other pillars of Islaam. Please, clarify this matter!

Answer: Anyone is a Muslim who pronounces Shahaadah (Testimony of Faith, i.e. I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped but Allaah and I bear witness that Muhammad is His Messenger), and believes in the Oneness of Allaah and the truthfulness of the His Messenger Muhammad (peace be upon him). If a person offers Salaah, they are considered Muslims, otherwise they are Murtad (apostates). Likewise, anyone who denies that Salaah, Sawm (Fast) of Ramadan, Zakaah (obligatory charity), or Hajj for those able to perform it are obligatory or mocks Islaam or insults the Messenger (peace be upon him), is regarded as a Murtad. A person is considered a Muslim once they declare Shahaadah. If they become steadfast in adhering to the truth, they are Muslims. However, if they do something that nullifies Islaam such as cursing Islaam, belying the Messenger (peace be upon him), denying acts of worship which were prescribed by Allaah, or regarding something that Allaah has forbidden as permissible, such as Zinaa (adultery), they become a Murtad… read more here.

Considering anyone who practices Islaam to be a Muslim

Question: Is the person who practices any of the teachings of Islaam considered to be a Muslim? Does this depend on knowing their `Aqeedah (creed)?

Answer: Anyone who practices Islaam should be judged as a Muslim. For example, if a person declares Shahaadah (Testimony of Faith, i.e. I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped but Allaah and I bear witness that Muhammad is His Messenger) or prays in congregation, he is a Muslim. If it is proven otherwise, it is compulsory to advise and clarify matters for him. If he apostatizes from Islaam, his case should be referred to the authorities who must ask him to repent; if he repents, all well and good, otherwise he will be subject to capital punishment. The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated: Whoever changes their Deen (religion) of Islaam must be executed. (Related by Al-Bukhaaree in his Saheeh (authentic) book of Hadeeth)read more here.

The articles of faith (Eemaan) in Islaam

Question: What are the conditions of Islaam?

Answer: There are two conditions of Islaam:

The first is sincerity to Allaah. When entering the fold of Islaam and performing any deed, a person should seek Allaah’s Pleasure. All acts of worship such as Salaah (Prayer), Sadaqah (voluntary charity), Sawm (Fast), Shahaadah (Testimony of Faith), etc should be done purely for the sake of Allaah; otherwise this is Riyaa’ (showing-off ) for which a person is considered a hypocrite. When a person pronounces Shahaadah (i.e. I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped but Allaah and I bear witness that Muhammad is His Messenger) it must be coupled with sincerity of intention. A person must acknowledge Allaah as the Only One Who is worthy of worship and acknowledge Muhammad (peace be upon him) as the true Messenger of Allaah and the seal of prophets. A person must offer Salaah, pay Sadaqah, recite Qur’aan, observe Sawm, perform Hajj, and other acts of worship purely for the sake of Allaah in order to be successful.

The second condition is that all of one’s actions must be in accordance with Sharee`ah (Islaamic law), not accordance with one’s whims or personal judgment. A person must offer Salaah, observe Sawm, pay Zakaah (obligatory charity), participate in Jihaad (striving in the Cause of Allaah), and perform Hajj in the manner prescribed by Allaah… read more here.

32- Description of the relationship between the mind and the soul

Question: Human beings have both minds and souls. Can the soul oppose or agree with the mind? Is there a relationship between both the soul and the mind? Or does each of them operate independently? 

Answer:  The mind and the soul are one entity. The mind thinks, considers and contemplates through the soul. If the soul departs the body, every other thing stops to be. While the soul is in the body, the mind thinks and distinguishes between good and evil, as the mind operates through the soul. Therefore, one can think, consider, plan, and decide as long as his soul resides in his body. When it is gone, one cannot think anymore… read more here.

31- Aadam’s place of descent and burial

Question: Is it true that Aadam (peace be upon him) came down in Sri Lanka, which used to be called Serendib?

Answer: There is no basis for such claim, for the location where Aadam descended and the place where he was buried are unknown… read more here.

30- Wisdom behind differences in languages and colors

Question: Why are there different languages although all races have the same origin: Aadam and Hawwa?

Answer: Allaah (Glorified be He) knows best, He is the All-Wise, the All-Knowing. We do not know the wisdom behind having a variety of languages. Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) says: Certainly your Lord is All-Wise, All-Knowing. And: And Allaah is Ever All-Knower, All-Wise. read more here.

29- No human being existed before Aadam

Question: Brother M. M. Y. from Al-Judeidah district, the Arab Republic of Yemen, asks: Some people claim that before Aadam there existed a primitive human species, but they then disappeared. Is this correct?

Answer: This claim is a groundless and meaningless superstition because no human being ever existed before Aadam (peace be upon him)… read more here.

28- The claim that man descended from apes is false (Darwinism)

Question: I have read a lot about the theory that humans evolved from an apelike ancestor. The theory proposes that humans went through several stages until they developed into the modern man. Is this true? Are the organs of apes similar to those of humans? Please advise us, may Allaah reward you with the best!

Answer: This statement is false, unacceptable, and contradictory to the Book of Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He), the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) as well as the Ijmaa` (consensus) of the Salaf (righteous predecessors). This theory which was introduced by Darwin is proven to be a lie, for modern humans originated from a human ancestry, not from an ape or anything else. Allaah created our father Adam (peace be upon him) from clay….read more here.

27- The difference between a “prophet” and a “messenger”

Question: What is the difference between a prophet and a messenger?

Answer: The well-known view of scholars is that a prophet is one to whom a system of law is revealed but was not commanded to convey it. He is ordered to pray and fast, etc., but not commanded to deliver what was revealed to him. If he is ordered to convey a message, then he is considered a prophet and a messenger; such as our Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), Moosaa (Moses), `Eesaa (Jesus), Nooh (Noah), Hood, Saalih, etc. Other scholars held that a prophet is one sent with a code similar to that which was revealed to the prophet who preceded him, while a messenger is one sent with a new, different code, such as the prophets who were sent after Moosaa to teach the Tawraah (Torah)… read more here.

26- Definition of a “prophet” and a “messenger”

Question: What is the difference between a prophet and a messenger? Who was the first messenger? May Allaah reward you the best!

Answer: The well-known view of scholars is that a prophet is one to whom a system of law was revealed but was not commanded to convey it, while a messenger was one who was given Divine Law and commanded to convey it…. read more here.

25- The first messenger

Question: A questioner asks: Who was the first prophet: Idrees (Enoch) or Nooh (Noah, peace be upon them)?

Answer: Nooh was the first Prophet to be sent when Shirk (associating others with Allaah in His Divinity or worship) appeared among the people. Before him was Adam (peace be upon him) who was the first Prophet and Messenger and his descendants followed Islaam for ten centuries. Then, when Shirk appeared, Allaah sent Nooh to his people. Therefore, Nooh was the first Messenger sent to his people who had fallen into Shirk… read more here.

24- The number of prophets and messengers

Question: Is it true that some Muslims will enter Jannah (Paradise) without being called to account?

Answer: There is no Hadeeth Saheeh (authentic) Hadeeth which indicates the number of prophets and messengers. It is narrated that the number of messengers is about 300 while the number of prophets is 124,000. Although this Hadeeth is Da`eef (weak), the number of prophets is more than the number of the messengers. A messenger is one to whom a system of law is revealed and who is commanded to convey it, whilst a prophet is one who receives revelation but is not commanded to convey it. Scholars believe that messengers were those sent to an Ummah (community) while a prophets were sent with the Sharee`ah (laws) of the messengers who came before them such as the prophets of the Children of Israel, who were sent after Moosaa (Moses). The correct view is that these two titles can be used interchangeably; a messenger is called a prophet; and a prophet is called messenger. Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He) states, Never did We send a Messenger or a Prophet before you but when he did recite the revelation or narrated or spoke read more here.

23- Sincerity in dedicating one’s deeds to Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He)

Question: Is it true that some Muslims will enter Jannah (Paradise) without being called to account?

Answer: To act sincerely, a person must turn to Allaah (Exalted be He) and have an attentive heart. A person should perform all deeds such as Salaah (Prayer), Sawm (Fast), Sadaqah (voluntary charity), Hajj (Major Pilgrimage), `Umrah (Minor Pilgrimage), and so on, seeking the Pleasure of Allaah, salvation from the Hellfire, and attainment of Allaah’s Mercy and Forgiveness. Sincerity is to seek the Pleasure of Allaah (Exalted be He), to draw close to Him, to hope for His Mercy, to have one’s deeds accepted, to be saved from Hellfire,and to be admitted to Jannah (Paradise), not for the purposes of Riyaa’ (showing-off) or enhancement of one’s reputation. A believer should perform deeds for the sake of Allaah (Exalted be He) in order to attain salvation in the Hereafter, to be saved from the Hellfire, and to be granted absolution…. read more here.

22- How to achieve Tawheed of Allaah

Question: How can Tawheed (belief in the Oneness of Allaah/Islaamic monotheism) be achieved?

Answer: A Muslim can achieve Tawheed by avoiding sins, all means and elements of Shirk (associating others with Allaah in His Divinity or worship), and Bid`ah (innovation in Islaam)….read more here.

21- Muslims who will enter Jannah without being called to account

Question: Is it true that some Muslims will enter Jannah (Paradise) without being called to account?

Answer: Yes, it is true. The Prophet (peace be upon him) is reported to have said: “All the nations were shown to me, and I saw a prophet accompanied by a small group of his followers, another with two or three people of his followers and a third not accompanied by any follower.” At the end of the Hadeeth, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Among my Ummah there are seventy thousand who would enter Jannah without being brought to account or being punished.” When the Sahaabah (Companions of the Prophet Muhammad) asked who these people were, the Prophet (peace be upon him) replied: “They are those who do not seek Ruqyah (recitation for healing or protection); they are those who do not get themselves cauterized; and they are those who do not believe in bad omens; rather, they put their trust in their Lord. read more here.

20- The wisdom of creating the universe

Question: It has become quite common knowledge that this world came into existence only for the sake of the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) and that had it not been for his sake, it would not have come into existence. I hope that our grand Shaykh will answer this question and mention related evidence. May Allaah reward you richly!

Answer: This claim is adopted by some common people who lack proper understanding of the purpose of life. Some people say that the world was created for the sake of Muhammad. They say that were it not for Muhammad (peace be upon him), neither the world nor the people living in it would have been created. This is a false and groundless claim which is based on corrupt understanding. Allaah (Exalted be He) created the world so that people would know Him, realize His existence and worship Him Alone (Glorified and Exalted be He). He created the world and human beings so that His Names and Attributes, His Graciousness and Knowledge would be known and so that He Alone would be obeyed and worshipped with no partner. He did not create this world for the sake of Muhammad, Nooh (Noah), Moosaa (Moses), `Eesaa (Jesus) or any other prophet. Rather, Allaah (Exalted be He) created the universe so that He Alone would be worshiped with no partner or associate….. read more here.

19- Categories of Tawheed of Allaah

Question: What are the categories of Tawheed (belief in the Oneness of Allaah/Islaamic monotheism)? Is the Muslim required to believe in all these categories? Is it enough for the Muslim to confess Shahaadah (Testimony of Faith)?

Answer: There are three categories of Tawheed which have been defined by means of induction. These categories include Tawheed-ul-Ruboobiyyah (Oneness of Allaah’s Lordship), Tawheed-ul-Uloohiyyah (Oneness of Worship), and Tawheed-ul-Asmaa’ wal-Sifaat (Oneness of Allaah’s Names and Attributes). It is enough for the person to sincerely declare that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allaah (Exalted be He) and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him). It is the duty of scholars to clarify these religious matters which on which people may be unenlightened. This is based on the fact that the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) accepted those people who testified that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah and at the same time they put the words of faith into actual practice. They obeyed the laws of Islaam and declared the Oneness of Allaah (Glorified and Exalted be He). People who declare Shahaadah are called Muslims because Shahaadah means to believe in Allaah as one’s Lord and Creator, and to believe that He Alone is worthy of worship, and to believe in His Names and Attributes. Therefore, to declare that there is no god but Allaah involves belief in the concept of Tawheed-ul-Ruboobiyyah and Tawheed-ul-Asmaa’ wal-Sifaat. Allaah (Glorified be He) is the True God Who is the Lord and Creator of all things. His Being, Names, Attributes and Actions are perfect…. read more here.

18- Faith resides firmly in the heart and is confirmed by deeds

Question: In order to become a Muslim, is it enough to say: “Laa ilaaha illaa Allaah (there is no god but Allaah)”, or does it have to be proven by deeds?

Answer: The Shahaadah (Testimony of Faith) is the greatest of all statements. It has to be articulated with the tongue and demonstrated practically. Mere articulation of the Shahadah is not sufficient for a person to be rightfully called a Muslim. Were it sufficient, the hypocrites would be considered Muslims; however, they are still considered Kaafirs (disbelievers) even though they articulate this statement. They will be flung into the depths of the Hellfire. We take refuge with Allaah from this. It is because they utter this statement without developing true faith. Therefore, this statement must be uttered with the tongue and at the same time the heart must firmly believe that there is no deity truly worthy of worship except Allaah. One must practically demonstrate the Shahaadah by fulfilling the duties prescribed by Allaah (Exalted be He) and avoiding what He has prohibited. These are essential requirements of Shahaadah. This is based on the Hadeeth in which the Prophet (peace be upon him) is reported to have said: I have been commanded to fight against people (i.e disbelievers) until they bear witness that there is no god but Allaah. Should they utter it, their blood and property will become inviolable unless they commit a sin which is punishable under Islaam, and their reckoning rests with Allaah. In another Hadeeth, the Prophet (peace be upon him) is reported to have said… read more here.

17- Validity of Shahaadah is conditional upon performance of other pillars

Question: Is establishment of other pillars of Islaam a criterion for the validity of the pillar of Shahaadah (Testimony of Faith)?

Answer: Yes, it is. However, the ruling related to negligence or abandonment of these pillars varies. In certain cases, negligence of these pillars may render a person as being of weak Eemaan (faith). However, all scholars unanimously agree that a person will be considered a Kaafir (disbeliever) if he denies what Allaah (Exalted Be He) has made obligatory or declared as prohibited. Scholars have unanimously agreed that if a person denies the obligatory status of Salaah (Prayer), Sawm (Fasting), or Zakaah (obligatory charity), he will be considered a Kaafir. The same applies to denying the obligatory status of Hajj, the prohibition of Zinaa (adultery), wine-drinking, or the prohibition of showing disrespect to one’s parents… read more here.

16- The necessity of stating the Shahaadah when embracing Islaam

Question: How much effective is the enunciation of Shahaadah (testimony of faith)? May Allaah grant you success!

Answer: First of all, it is necessary for a person to declare the Shahaadah in order to be called a Muslim. A person will remain a Kaafir (disbeliever) until they declare the Shahaadah. However, the Shahaadah alone is not enough, as it is necessary to believe sincerely that the phrase ‘there is no god but Allaah’ means that no one ever has the right to be worshipped except Allaah (Exalted be He). If a person pronounces this phrase and yet associates other deities along with Allaah in worship, they will be behaving like hypocrites whose practice is no more than lip service. In such a case, their declaration of Shahaadah will avail them naught. Allaah (Glorified be He) states, Verily, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depth (grade) of the Fire; no helper will you find for them. Allaah (Exalted be He) also says, And of mankind, there are some (hypocrites) who say: “We believe in Allaah and the Last Day” while in fact they believe not. They (think to) deceive Allaah and those who believe, while they only deceive themselves, and perceive (it) not! read more here.

15- Ruling on uttering the two Shahaadas before one’s death

Question: The questioner ‘Aboo Ahmad asks: “If one never performs Salaah (prayer) during his lifetime and is granted success to utter the two Shahaadas (Testimonies of Faith) before passing away, will they become a Muslim and be treated in the hereafter as a Muslim, and be resurrected with Muslims?”

Answer: If one utters it out of Tawbah (repentance to Allaah) and embracement of Islaam, Allaah will pardon their previous sins. Shahaadah will be accepted if one utters it out of Tawbah, Tawheed (belief in the Oneness of Allaah) and sincerity while they are acquainted with its meaning, rejecting Shirk (associating others with Allaah in His Divinity or worship) and sins sincerely. This is the true Tawbah by which Allaah wipes out past sins. However, if one utters it as a habit, it will not benefit them if they die as Mushriks (those who associate others with Allaah in His Divinity or worship). This means that they used to say it during their lifetime and before their death while insisting on worshipping graves, asking the dead for help and committing sins… read more here.

14- Pronouncing Shahaadah suffices to enter Islaam

Question: Does mere pronouncement of Shahaadah (Testimony of Faith) suffice for a person to be rightfully called a Muslim, or does one have to do other things in order for their Islaam and Eemaan (faith) to be complete?

Answer: It is enough for a non-Muslim to pronounce the first pillar of Islaam, that is, to bear witness that Laa ilaaha illaa Allaah (there is no deity but Allaah) and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah to be rightfully called a Muslim provided that this testimony is pronounced out of one’s certainty, knowledge, true belief, and sincere work. A person will then be asked to perform Salaah (Prayer) and observe other acts of `Ibaadah (worship). When the Prophet (peace be upon him) sent Mu`aadh (may Allaah be pleased with him) to Yemen, he said: Invite them to bear witness that Laa ilaaha illaa Allaah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah. If they do that, then inform them that Allaah has made it obligatory upon them to offer the Five Obligatory Daily Prayers. If they obey, then inform them that Allaah has made it obligatory upon them to pay Zakaah (obligatory charity) which is taken from the rich among them and distributed among the poor. The Prophet (peace be upon him) did not ask Mu`aadh to command them to offer Salaah until their Tawheed (monotheism) and Eemaan in the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) were firmly established. First of all, they are required to declare the Oneness of Allaah and believe in Muhammad as the Messenger of Allaah. Once they embrace Islaam, the former Kaafir (disbeliever) will hold the same rulings applied to Muslims. Then they will be required to offer Salaah and perform all other religious acts. If they refrain from performing these acts, other rulings will be applicable to them... read more here.

13- Ruling on pronouncing the two Shahaadahs

Question: Does mere articulation of Shahaadah (Testimony of Faith) protect render one’s blood and property inviolable? Is it sufficient to utter Shahaadah without knowing the meaning of it? Does uttering Shahaadah entail admitting the utterer into Jannah (Paradise) and save them from the Hellfire?

Answer: The phrase ‘Laa ilaaha illaa Allaah, Muhammad rasool-Allaah (There is no god but Allaah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah)’ constitutes the foundation of faith. One who utters these words will be rightfully called a Muslim whose blood may not be legally spilt and whose property may not be lawfully seized. One must be taught the meaning this phrase, and if one accepts its embodied truth and becomes an upright Muslim, it is a testimony of their honesty and truthfulness. However, the confession of Shahaadah is of no benefit if one continues to worship idols, trees, stones or dead people; or continues to ridicule and insult Islaam, or commits any other act that nullifies their belief in Islaam. They would then be considered Murtad (apostate). Therefore, one who enunciates Shahaadah is considered a Muslim unless they commit an act which renders them Murtad... read more here.

12- Explaining the meaning of the two Shahaadahs

Question: A listener from Riyadh asks: “What does it mean to testify that there is no deity but Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah?”

Answer: Shahaadah (Testimony of Faith) means to testify both verbally and inwardly that there is none worthy of worship except Allaah. A word uttered by the tongue, and one must also believe in one’s heart that there is no god but Allaah and none has the right to be worshiped except Allaah. It should also be believed that all other deities worshiped by people, including idols, the dead, trees, stones, angels or anything else are false deities. Allaah (Exalted be He) stated: That is because Allaah — He is the Truth (the only True God of all that exists, Who has no partners or rivals with Him), and what they (the polytheists) invoke besides Him, it is Baatil (falsehood).

This is the actual meaning of testifying that there is no deity but Allaah. In conclusion, it is a faithful and strongly-substantiated testimony that none has the right to be worshiped but Allaah and that all deities worshiped by people are false read more here.

11- Illustration of the meaning of Al-Taaghoot

Question: What is the meaning of denying Al-Taaghoot (false deities)? May Allaah reward you best!

Answer: It means to declare oneself free from worshipping false deities and to believe that all deities worshipped along with Allaah are false. Allaah (Glorified be He) says, Whoever disbelieves in Taaghoot and believes in Allaah, then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold that will never break. And Allaah is All-Hearer, All-Knower. The word Al-Taaghoot applies to all objects of worship taken as gods besides Allaah. Denying or disbelieving in Al-Taaghoot means to declare yourself free from worshipping idols, statutes, jinn or other false objects of worship. One must also believe that the true god is Allaah, alone without partner. Whoever does not believe in this will not rightfully be called a Muslim. Therefore, one must believe that only Allaah (Exalted be He) is worthy of worship and that worship of false deities, like jinn or idols, is null and void. As the word Al-Taaghoot (pl. Tawaagheet) refers to any object worshipped along with Allaah, it may refer to idols, trees, stones which are taken as objects of worship. However, the term cannot refer to the worship of Awliya’ (pious people), prophets, or angels. It is the devil from among jinn or mankind, which incites man to worship Awliya’, prophets or angels, which is referred to as Taaghoot. The Awliya’, prophets and angels do not bear the sin of being worshipped by people, because they would never allow others to worship them besides Allaah … read more here.