Does Madhee (thin white viscid fluid) invalidate Sawm?

Question: One Ramadaan day, I sat beside my wife for about half an hour while we were both fasting. We were having fun with each other. After I left her, I found wet traces of a liquid on my pants discharged from my penis. Actually, this happened more than once. I would like to know if I am liable for Kaffaarah (expiation) for doing so.

Answer: If the reality is as you mentioned, you do not have to make up for the Sawm of that day or offer a Kaffaarah, keeping to the basis that Sawm continues to be valid (as long as nothing has happened to invalidate it, i.e, since the discharge was Madhee [thin white viscid fluid secreted due to sexual thoughts or desire]), unless it is proven that the liquid you discharged was Maniy (sperm/vaginal secretions that are released on orgasm), in which case you must perform Ghusl (full ritual bath) and make up for the Sawm of that day, but you do not have to offer a Kaffaarah..read more here.

Ruling on smelling perfume or insecticide while fasting

Question: If a person is observing Sawm (Fast) and they smell perfumes or insecticide, does this invalidate their Sawm during Ramadaan or at any other time?

Answer:  Smelling perfumes or other substances does not invalidate a person’s Sawm, whether in Ramadaan or during a voluntary Sawm..read more here.

A fasting person forgetfully eating and drinking

Question: If one eats or drinks forgetfully during a day in Ramadaan, should one make up for the Sawm (Fast) of that day? The Messenger (peace be upon him) said: “Anyone who forgets that they are fasting and eats or drinks…”? He (peace be upon him) also said: My Ummah (nation based on one creed) has been pardoned for what they do by mistake, forgetfully, or under duress.

Answer:  Anyone who eats or drinks forgetfully during the daytime in Ramadaan is not sinful and should complete their Sawm and not break it. Moreover, they need not make up for the Sawm of the day in question, according to the more correct of the two opinions maintained by scholars..read more here.

Blood coming out of a fasting person intentionally or unintentionally

Question: One day in Ramadaan, I accidentally touched my nose and this caused few drops of blood to come out of it. Does this bleeding affectmy Sawm? Is my Sawm that day counted or I am supposed to make up for that day?

Answer:  If the reality is as you mentioned, then your Sawm is counted and you do not need to make up for that day, as you have not done anything that might render your Sawm invalid..read more here.

Cupping and phlebotomy for a person observing fast

Question: Does cupping during the daytime in Ramadan invalidate the Sawm (Fast) of both the cupper and the one who is cupped? Should they break their Sawm and make up for the Sawm of the day in question at a later date? Please answer my question!

Answer:  The Sawm of the cupper and the one being cupped is invalidated by doing so. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: The cupper and the cupped have broken their Sawm...read more here.

Masturbation of a fasting person

Question: If a Muslim is so sexually excited during the daytime in Ramadaan that he cannot help masturbating, does this invalidate Sawm? Does doing so necessitate making up for the day (or days) or offering a Kaffaarah (expiation)?

Answer: Masturbation during Ramadaan and at other times is Haraam. It is unlawful to do so based on the Saying of Allaah: And those who guard their chastity (i.e. private parts from illegal sexual acts). Except from their wives or the (women slaves) whom their right hands possess – for (then) they are not blameworthy. But whosoever seeks beyond that, then it is those who are trespassers. Anyone who practices it during the daytime in Ramadaan while fasting has to repent to Allaah and make up for the Sawm of the respective day. However, it does not necessitate Kaffaraah because it is prescribed specifically in the case of sexual intercourse..read more here.

Shaving hair and cutting nails during the daytime in Ramadaan

Question: Does shaving one’s hair and cutting one’s nails during the day of Ramadaan render one’s Sawm (Fast) invalid?

Answer: Shaving hair, cutting nails, plucking out the armpit hair, and shaving pubic hair do not break one’s Sawm..read more here.

A fasting person using liquid perfume in a bottle

Question: Does applying liquid perfumes to hands, face, body or clothing invalidate one’s Sawm (Fast)?

Answer: Applying perfumes in the way mentioned does not invalidate one’s Sawm..read more here.

Making up fasts due to involuntarily vomitting

Question: If a fasting person vomits involuntarily during the daytime in Ramadaan, should they make up for that day?

Answer: Involuntary vomiting does not invalidate Sawm (Fast); consequently, experiencing it while fasting does not require that the day be made up because the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Whoever vomits involuntarily is not required to make up the fast, but whoever vomits deliberately, must make up the missed fast. (Related by Imaam Ahmad and the Compilers of the Sunan [Aboo Daawood, Al-Tirmithee, Al-Nasaa’ee and Ibn Maajah] through an authentic Isnaad [chain of narrators])..read more here.

A fasting person swearing at and calling others names

Question: In Ramadaan, is the Sawm (Fast) of a person, who, while in a rage, reviles or swears at another, invalidated by doing so?

Answer: Doing so does not invalidate Sawm, but it does detract from its reward. Muslims should control themselves and guard their tongue against swearing, reviling, backbiting, gossiping and other things forbidden by Allaah whether or not they are fasting. However, a Muslim, while observing Sawm, should be all the more keen to preserve the integrity of their Sawm and be more watchful against anything offensive or may sow the seeds of discord and disunity among people, because the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: When any of you is observing Sawm on a day, they should neither speak bad words nor raise their voice. If anyone reviles them or tries to quarrel with them, they should say: ‘I am fasting.’ (Agreed upon by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim.).read more here.

Tasting food while Fasting

Question: Some scholars maintain that it is permissible for a woman to taste the food she is preparing while fasting to see if it is seasoned properly, on condition that nothing reaches her throat. Is this view correct?

Answer: It is permissible for a fasting person to taste the food during the daytime in Ramadaan, if necessary, and their Sawm (Fast) is still valid as long as they do not deliberately swallow anything of it..read more here.

Fast of a menstruating woman who is purified before dawn

Question: What is the ruling on a menstruating woman who becomes pure before Fajr (Dawn) Prayer? Should she fast this day?

Answer: She should fast this day and perform Ghusl (ritual bath following major ritual impurity) even after the light of Fajr appears.Postponing performing Ghusl until after the light of Fajr appears does not affect Sawm (Fast)..read more here.

Is it permissible for a person to fast while in a state of Janaabah?

Question: Is it permissible for a person to fast while in a state of Janaabah (major ritual impurity related to sexual discharge) caused by intercourse with one’s spouse during the night or anything else?

Answer: The Sawm (Fast) of a Junub (person in a state of post-sexual ritual impurity) due to sexual intercourse during the night without taking Ghusl (ritual bath) until after daybreak is valid. Likewise, the Sawm of a Junub due to a wet dream that takes place during the day or the night is valid, even if making Ghusl is delayed until after daybreak. Only sexual intercourse that takes place between daybreak and sunset invalidates Sawm..read more here.

Sexual intercourse during the daytime in Ramadaan

Question: It occurred that during one of the days of the blessed month of Ramadaan, I was overwhelmed by desire and had sexual intercourse with my wife after Fajr (Dawn) Prayer? What is the ruling on this?

Answer: As for the questioner who said that he was so overwhelmed by his desire that he had sexual intercourse with his wife after Fajr Prayer in Ramadaan, he is obliged to emancipate a believing slave, and if that is not possible, he must fast for two consecutive months. Again, if he is not able to fast, then he must feed sixty poor persons each a Mudd (a dry measure of half bushel, 543 grams) of wheat as well as making up for that day. As for the woman, she also has to make a similar Kaffaarah (expiation) if she was a consenting partner in the act of intercourse during the day in Ramadaan. If, however, this took place against her will, she will not be obliged to make up for that day..read more here.

Causes necessitating making up missed days and Kaffaarah

Question: I would like to know the causes necessitating making up missed days in addition to the expiation when breaking fast in Ramadaan? I have studied the matter and found that there are two opinions:

The first: Only sexual intercourse requires the making up for the day violated along with an expiation. The evidence in support of this judgment is known from the Sunnah.

The second: Making up and expiation are required in cases of sexual intercourse and the intentional admittance of any food or drink into the stomach. However, I did not find any evidence in support of this opinion in the Qur’aan or Sunnah.

Thus, please provide a detailed answer supported by evidence of the Qur’aan and Sunnah. May Allaah reward you with the best.

Answer: The Prophet (peace be upon him) judged that a Bedouin who had intercourse with his wife deliberately during the day in Ramadan must offer an expiation. Thus, he (peace be upon him) explained the basis for the judgment and stated the effective cause thereof. Muslim jurists unanimously agree that being a Bedouin has no effect on the legal ruling. Therefore, the same ruling of expiation should be applicable to this act regardless of the doer e.g. Turkish, Persian, etc..read more here.

Vomiting during the daytime in Ramadaan

Question: What is the ruling on the fasting person who has vomited and then swallowed a little of his vomit, though unintentionally?

Answer: If the fasting person has vomited deliberately, then his Sawm (Fast) is invalidated. However, if he could not help it, then his Sawm (Fast) is not invalidated. Similarly, Sawm (Fast) is not invalidated by his swallowing some of one’s vomit as long as it was not deliberate..read more here.

Washing the hair while observing Sawm

Question: An Imaam (the one who leads congregational Prayer) of a Masjid (mosque) told me that if someone washes their head during the day of Ramadaan, their Sawm (Fast) will be broken because water will seep into the pores of the hair. What is your opinion on this subject?

Answer: Washing one’s hair while observing Sawm does not render that Sawm invalid. Water does not enter one’s body through the pores. Thus, whoever told you this is wrong as the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to wash his entire body while observing Sawm..read more here.

A fasting person applying kohl

Question: Does using kohl affect one’s fasting?

Answer: There is no blame upon the person who is fasting if they use kohl so long as it is not felt in the throat. If it can be felt in the throat, then the day of fasting should be made up just to be on the safe side and it is better if the person who is fasting avoids using kohl during the day while they are fasting..read more here.

Applying kohl or cosmetic creams during the daytime in Ramadaan

Question: Does using kohl or cosmetic creams break one’s fast during the day of Ramadaan?

Answer: Using kohl or applying cream to the head while fasting does not invalidate one’s Sawm (Fast) in any way..read more here.

A fasting person being treated with injections, intravenous or intramuscular, during the day of Ramadaan

Question: What is the ruling on having injection during the daytime in Ramadaan, whether for nutrition or treatment?

Answer: It is permissible for a person observing Sawm (Fast) to be treated by injections, whether intravenous or intramuscular, during the day in Ramadaan. But it is not permissible to have nutritive injections, as they come under the same ruling as having food and drinks..read more here.

Diabetes injection during Ramadaan

Question: I am a diabetic and I have to have a hypodermic injection on a daily basis. When I do not have this injection my blood sugar level rises. To get straight to the point, is it permissible for me to have such an injection during Ramadaan? It may be worth mentioning that my health condition deteriorates every Ramadaan because I stop taking the injection. I thus remain at the hospital and break my Sawm (Fast) for about ten days which I make up later on. Please advise. What should I do bearing in mind that such an injection is not effective when it is taken during the night?

Answer: It is permissible for you to have the injection referred to in the question in the daytime without being required to make up for the Sawm of any days. However, if you can take the injection during the night-time without facing any hardship, this will be more proper..read more here.

Vaccinating students during Ramadaan

Question: All praise be to Allaah Alone and peace and blessings be upon the servant and Messenger of Allaah, our Prophet Muhammad, and upon his family and Companions!

The Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Iftaa’ read question no. 11/2704 that was sent in 29/8/1410 A.H. to the Chairman of the Permanent Committee by the General Manager of Education in Riyadh. This question was referred to the Permanent Committee by the General Secretariat of the Council of Senior Scholars under the number 5010 in 2/9/1410 A.H. The text of the question is:

We would like to inform you that the school health care units will launch a campaign, In-Shaa’-Allaah (if Allaah wills), to vaccinate students in the primary and secondary schools against meningitis in preparation for the season of Hajj (pilgrimage) this year. This campaign will be launched because of the circulated notice no. 32/148 that has been released in 8/8/1410 A.H. by the under-secretary of the Ministry of Education in response to the circulated notice no. 19/1184 that has been issued in 15/7/1410 A.H. by the under-secretary of the Ministry of Health.

Please inform us whether it is possible to carry out this campaign during Ramadaan and whether or not the inoculation will have any effect upon Sawm (Fast).

Answer: After studying the subject, the Committee finds that there is no problem in doing so. However, it would be better to do so during the night if it is possible..read more here.

Using eye drops during the daytime in Ramadaan

Question: Is it permissible to use eye drops during the daytime hours of the month of Ramadaan?

Answer: Yes, it is permissible, as eye drops do not break one’s fast according to the most correct of the two opinions of scholars..read more here.

Giving injections during the daytime in Ramadaan

Question: Suffering from some diseases, I visited the hospital where the doctor who examined me administered the required medicine that included intramuscular penicillin injections which I received in the morning and evening. I told him that I did not want to break my Sawm (Fast) and that I fear the injections would nullify my Sawm (Fast). However, he told me that this type of injection does not invalidate the Sawm (Fast). Thus, I continued to take the injections for two days in the morning and evening as specified by the doctor. However – and to my surprise- some colleagues told me that all types of injections invalidate one’s Sawm (Fast) and their use is Makrooh (disliked) during midday hours in Ramadaan, which made me very confused.

I hope that Your Eminence will advise me on whether they invalidate the Sawm (Fast), and whether I should make up for the two days which I took these injections; even though I used them without knowing that they invalidate the Sawm (Fast) and did so under doctors orders which I know for sure are instructed by hospitals regarding treatments. I hope you will reply promptly. May Allaah protect you and reward you with the best reward!

Answer: If the case is as you mentioned, then there is nothing wrong in your taking these injections, and you need not make up for the two days which you took them. However, regarding such matters in the future, it is preferable to take this treatment in the evening, if possible, in order to be on the safe side..read more here.

Swallowing one’s saliva while fasting

Question: Does swallowing one’s saliva during the daytime in Ramadaan invalidate one’s Sawm (Fast)? My mouth produces too much saliva, especially while I am reciting the Qur’aan in the Masjid (mosque), which causes me embarrassment.

Answer:  Swallowing one’s saliva does not break one’s Sawm even if in a large amount, whether this happens frequently, and whether one is in the Masjid or elsewhere. However, if a person has thick phlegm, they should not swallow it; they should spit it in a handkerchief or tissue, if in the Masjid..read more here.

Intentionally eating during the daytime in Ramadaan

Question: What is the ruling on a fasting person who eats deliberately during the daytime in Ramadaan and then repents to Allaah? Is their Tawbah (repentance) acceptable?

Answer: Yes, their Tawbah will be accepted if all the Tawbah conditions are met, which are: feeling deep remorse for the sin committed, refraining absolutely from it and firmly resolving never to do it again..read more here.

Intentionally drinking water during fasting

Question: What is the ruling on intentionally drinking water during Sawm time on feeling very tired? Does doing so necessitate making up for the Sawm of that day?

Answer: Drinking water intentionally during the daytime in Ramadaan invalidates Sawm. Therefore, a fasting person who drinks water due to feeling extremely tired should make up for the Sawm of that day in addition to repenting to Allaah (Glorified be He)..read more here.

Intention materializes by having the resolution to fast

Question: How can a person set the intention of fasting Ramadaan? Does the acknowledgement of the advent of Ramadaan validate Sawm (Fast) during the whole month?

Answer: Intention of fasting Ramadaan is to be set by deciding to fast, and it should be set every night..read more here.

Invalidity of Sawm without a prior intention

Question: Some Muslim brothers who do not have radios to know when the first day of Ramadaan is wait until the morning and continue fasting, is their Sawm (fast) valid or should they make up for it?

Answer: They have done the right thing by offering Sawm for the rest of the day but they have to make up for that day..read more here.

Having the intention of Sawm from the previous night

Question: Should the intention to observe Sawm (Fast) in Ramadaan be made at night, or is it permissible to make it during the daytime? To give an example, if someone is informed at forenoon that today is Ramadaan, should they make up for the Sawm of that day later?

Answer: It is obligatory to make the intention to fast on any day of Ramadaan in the preceding night before dawn. Thus, starting the Sawm in the daytime without making the intention in the preceding night does not discharge the obligation. Accordingly, if someone knows at forenoon that today is a Ramadaan day and then makes the intention to fast, it is obligatory on them to abstain from all invalidations of Sawm until sunset..read more here.

Exams are not a valid excuse for breaking Sawm in Ramadaan

Question: Is being occupied by exams a valid excuse for breaking Sawm (Fast) during Ramadaan? Here, there is a spread of fataawaa permitting a student who fears that he may be distracted or absent minded to break his Sawm during Ramadaan. Moreover, is it permissible to obey the orders of one’s parents, influenced by such fataawaa permitting breaking the Sawm, to break the Sawm? I hope that Your Eminence will give me a quick reply for such fataawaa have a bad public effect. May Allaah reward you well!

Answer: School exams and such like are not considered valid excuses for breaking Sawm during the daytime of Ramadaan. Moreover, it is not permissible to obey the orders of one’s parents to break Sawm because of exams, for indeed no creature may be obeyed in what constitutes disobedience to the Creator. Rather, obedience (to somebody) is required when he enjoins what is good as stated in the authentic Hadeeth the Prophet (peace be upon him) is reported to have said..read more here.

Concession of breaking Sawm in Ramadaan for a student during exams

Question: I am a student in the third grade of my secondary school. The final exams will be held in Ramadaan, by Allaah’s permission. As you know, during exam days students need energy and they exert more effort because exams are taken on a daily basis. On the other hand, I think that Sawm (Fast) requires comfort and sleep. Is it then permissible for me to break my Sawm during exam days and make up for these days later?

Answer: Breaking Sawm is not permissible for the reason you mentioned. Doing so is Haraam (prohibited) because such a reason is not included in the excuses that allow the breaking of Sawm in Ramadaan..read more here.

Breaking Sawm of Ramadaan for a baker

Question: There is a man in our village who works in a bakery. This man offers Salaah (Prayer) and observes Sawm (Fast) in Ramadaan – all praise be to Allaah – but he asked me if he is permitted to break his Sawm during Ramadaan? Please note that when he bakes the bread, he has to stand in front of the strong heat of the fire for a long time during the day when he is observing Sawm, so he gets very thirsty and exhausted from his work. I hope that Your Eminence will answer my question on this matter, if Allaah (Exalted be He) wills.

Answer: This man is not permitted to break his Sawm; in fact, fasting is obligatory on him. Baking bread in the daytime of Ramadaan is not a legitimate excuse for breaking the Sawm. He should work according to his abilities..read more here.

A 15 year old boy breaking Sawm during Ramadaan

Question: What is the ruling on a 15-year-old youth who breaks his Sawm (Fast) during Ramadaan under the excuse that he is very tired and cannot complete his Sawm? If he is required to make up for the missed Sawm, can he make up for it after the next Ramadaan?

Answer: It is prohibited for a Mukallaf (person meeting the conditions to be held legally accountable for their actions) – someone who is a sane, adult, healthy, resident (non-traveling) Muslim – to break their Sawm during the daytime in Ramadaan. If they experience hardship and are forced by necessity to break their Sawm, exactly as someone who is forced by necessity to eat dead meat, they may only eat as much as is needed to remove the hardship..read more here.

Sawm of workers who do physically hard jobs

Question: All praise be to Allaah (Exalted be He) and peace and blessings be upon His Honorable Prophet. We supplicate to Him (Glorified and Exalted be He) to make Islaam and the Muslims strong and to guard them against the Enemies of Allaah. It is the Islaamic centers, as you know, that are the front for Islaam and Muslims in these countries. We have received a message from one of the scientific departmentsof the University of Tübingen in West Germany, the Department of Occupational and Social Medicine. This letter contains some questions asking for Fatwas pertaining to Ramadaan and observing the Sawm (fast) in this month. Realizing the importance and the sensitivity of the subject, we decided to ask for your advice, hoping that you will guide us to the truth with Allaah’s support.

The questions that were sent to us in that letter are:

What is the Islaamic ruling on observing Sawm for workers who do physically hard work, especially during summer months, such as those who work with blast furnaces?

What is the Islaamic ruling on observing Sawm in the northern parts of the earth where the sun only sets for a very short time, maybe only a few minutes, or in places such as Scandinavia where the sun never sets? We would like to inform you that your Fatwaa may be misused by the authorities in order to issue laws and apply them to the foreign workers here in Germany. There are more than one and half million Muslim workers in this state. We are worried that if these questions are answered without taking these matters into consideration, it may cause great problems for the Muslims living in these states, as most of them do not know the legal rulings of their religion.

Answer: It is well-known in the religion of Islam that fasting in Ramadaan is an obligation upon every Mukallaf (person meeting the conditions to be held legally accountable for their actions) and that it is one of the pillars of Islaam.Therefore, every Mukallaf should observe the Sawm in order to fulfill what Allaah has obligated them to do, hoping to get Allaah’s Reward and fearing His Punishment..read more here.

Breaking Sawm of Ramadaan for workers who are overtaxed by work

Question: I heard a Khateeb (preacher) while delivering the Khutbah (sermon) on the second Friday of Ramadaan saying that workers who get extremely exhausted because of the nature of their work, and they have no other source of income, are allowed to refrain from Sawm during Ramadaan. Instead, they should feed a poor person for each day of Ramadaan they do not fast on or equally pay fifteen Dirhams. This urged me to write this letter to you to ask if this Fatwaa is substantiated by any authentic evidence from the Qur’aan and the Sunnah.

Answer: It is not permissible for a Mukallaf to break their Sawm during the daytime in Ramadaan under the pretext that they are workers. However, if they suffer from great hardship that may force them to break their Sawm during the daytime, they are permitted to break their Sawm but only up to the point of relieving the hardship. After that, they have to resume abstention from the invalidators of Sawm until sunset and break their Sawm at the time all Muslims break it. However, they have to make up for such a day later. Accordingly, the Fatwa you mentioned is incorrect..read more here.

Breaking Sawm of Ramadaan for a policeman

Question: I am a solider and Ramadaan has arrived. Am I permitted to break my Sawm (fast) during Ramadaan as the circumstances do not help me to observe it?

Answer: You are not permitted to break your Sawm in Ramadaan if you are Mukallaf (person meeting the conditions to be held legally accountable for their actions), unless you are on a journey or suffering from a disease that makes you unable to fast..read more here.

Breaking Sawm of Ramadaan for a farmer during the harvest

Question: What is the ruling on someone who cultivates land and it happens that the time of harvest coincides with Ramadaan? Is he excused from fasting during Ramadaan because of his work or not? Please bear in mind that the man cannot observe the Sawm (fast) and work at the same time.

Answer: The Sawm of Ramadaan is one of the pillars of Islam and is unanimously agreed upon as an obligation upon every Mukallaf (person meeting the conditions to be held legally accountable for their actions). Allaah says: So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadaan i.e. is present at his home), he must observe Sawm (fasts) that month, and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Sawm (fasts) must be made up] from other days...read more here.

Breaking Sawm of Ramadan for a patrolling policeman

Question: During my service as a military guard of king `Abdul-`Azeez (may Allaah be merciful to him), we travelled from Al-Taa’if to Riyadh. In the middle of Ramadaan, while we were observing Sawm (Fast), tents were set up for us at Qasr Al-Murabba` by Fajr (Dawn). I had the guns gathered and appointed a guard to take care of them for two hours before noon. It was such a sweltering summer that I felt unbearable thirst. At the end I found myself forced to drink. Then I abstained and completed fasting. I did so in spite of the fact that neither I nor any other person of the guard knew whether we were to be considered travelers or residents. Asking a religious scholar about the ruling in this regard, he stated that a day of Ramadaan cannot be made up for through observing Sawm on another day. Please advise about the ruling on that!

Answer: If the reality is as you have mentioned, then you have an excuse for breaking your Sawm. You did well in completing fasting the day. You have to fast a day in place of the day on which you broke Sawm with an excuse. You have mentioned in your inquiry that you have already fasted a day to make up for the missed day, thus this suffices you. Allaah is full of mercy towards His Servants..read more here.

Breaking Sawm of Ramadaan for a shepherd

Question: A man observed Sawm (Fast) fifteen days of Ramadaan only, justifying his deed by being a hired shepherd. Asking a person who claims to be a knowledge seeker, he was given a Fatwaa (legal opinion) by the latter that he should give in charity a quarter dinar for each day he missed to fast. In issuing this Fatwaa, he cited the following Aayah (Qur’aanic verse): And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g. an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskeen (poor person) (for every day). I witnessed the dialogue between the inquirer and the answerer.

Answer: First: It is permissible for a shepherd not to observe Sawm in Ramadaan only in case of being forced by severe hunger, where he can just have what maintains his life and then abstain from having anything else until Maghrib (sunset). He must make up for the days he missed later..read more here.

Obligation of making up for the missed days of Ramadaan for anyone who did not fast without an excuse

Question: If a woman does not observe Sawm (Fast) during Ramadaan due to post-partum period, pregnancy, or breastfeeding and then later she becomes in a good state of health, is it better for her to observe Sawm or to give Sadaqah (voluntary charity) to make up for the days she has missed?

Answer: Any woman who is unable to observe Sawm during Ramadan due to postpartum period must fast to make up for the missed days of Sawm. In the case of a woman who is pregnant however, she should observe Sawm during her pregnancy, except if it is feared that Sawm will cause harm to the mother or to the fetus. In this case, the mother is allowed not to observe Sawm during Ramadan, and she should make up for these missed days of Sawm after giving birth to the child and after the post-partum period..read more here.

A pregnant woman bleeding during Ramadaan

Question: I was pregnant during the blessed month of Ramadaan. I had a vaginal bleeding on Ramadaan 20th, but I neither ate nor drank, i.e., I kept fasting. During my stay in the hospital I broke my Sawm (Fast) for four days. After Ramadaan I made up for the days of Sawm I missed. Should I make up for them again, bearing in mind that I have not given birth yet? Please advise me, may Allaah reward you.

Answer: Your observing Sawm while having vaginal bleeding during pregnancy has no effect on the validity of your Sawm, just like the case of Istihaadah (abnormal vaginal bleeding outside the menstrual or post-partum period). Therefore, your Sawm is valid. Moreover, your making up for the four days you missed during your stay in hospital after Ramadaan discharges the obligation, and you do not have to fast them again..read more here.

A woman who did not fast in Ramadaan for three years

Question: My wife has given birth to a child at the beginning of the blessed month of Ramadaan for the last three years. In other words, she has not observed Sawm (fast) for the last three months of Ramadaan. Please, inform us what the expiation is.

Answer: She must proceed to make up for the Sawm she has missed for three successive months of Ramadaan. In addition, she has to feed a needy person half a Saa` (1 Saa`=3 kg. Approx.) of wheat, rice or any other local staple foodstuff per day she missed. This is because she delayed making up for the Sawm she missed till another month of Ramadaan has started – if she delayed making it up while having the ability to do so..read more here.

Fasting in the postpartum period after miscarriage

Question: A pregnant woman experienced a miscarriage one day during Ramadaan. Yet she continued observing Sawm (Fast) on this day. What is the ruling on the validity of Sawm on the day in question? On the same day after Iftar (breaking the Fast), she went to the hospital where she underwent an operation for cleaning her womb, which prevented her from observing Sawm on the next day.

What is the ruling on this case? Now after leaving the hospital, should she wait until she becomes pure from postpartum blood or should she observe Sawm? If she should not observe Sawm, how long should she wait? Should she only make up for these days or feed needy people as well?

Answer: If the miscarried fetus was somewhat formed into a human shape, that is, having limbs, such as hands, legs and the like, she should wait until she becomes pure from the postpartum blood or else she should wait for forty days, then she can take after-post-partum bleeding Ghusl (full ritual bath) and perform Salaah (Prayer). She must make up for the days of Ramadaan during which she did not observe Sawm. She does not have to feed the needy if she makes up for the missed days before next Ramadaan..read more here.

A pregnant woman’s concession not to fast during Ramadaan

Question: Is it permissible for a pregnant woman to forgo Sawm (Fast) during the daytime hours of Ramadaan? Is she supposed to refrain from observing Sawm during a certain month of her pregnancy or throughout the entire pregnancy? If she has a Rukhsah (concession) to forgo Sawm, is she required to make up for these missed days of Sawm or should she feed the needy instead? What is the amount of food she should give if she is supposed to feed the needy? I live in a hot country; does Sawm have an effect on a pregnant woman in such hot countries? We hope that you will answer our question.

Answer: If a pregnant woman fears for her own safety or for that of the foetus while fasting during Ramadaan, then she is allowed to forgo Sawm. She is only required to make up for the days of Sawm that she missed, whether she lives in a hot country or not. This is not restricted to certain months of her pregnancy. Rather it is her condition that should be taken into consideration and the hardship that she might encounter, regardless of how long she has been pregnant. The case of the pregnant woman is similar in this respect to the case of a person who is ill and is unable to observe Sawm. Allaah says: …and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Sawm (fasts) must be made up] from other days.... read more here.

The passage of years without observing Sawm or making up for the missed days

Question: My wife has to make up for three or four months of Sawm (Fast) as she broke her Sawm during three or four months of Ramadaan because of pregnancy and breastfeeding. She still breastfeeds her baby. Is she permitted to feed needy people instead of making up for these months as she finds great hardship in making up for three or four months of Ramadaan that she missed?

Answer: There is no blame on her for delaying making up for the days of Sawm that she missed due to the hardships of pregnancy and breastfeeding. She has to hasten in making up for these days of Sawm that she missed as soon as possible. She is similar, in this case, to a person who is sick. Allaah (Exalted be He) says, …and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Sawm (fasts) must be made up] from other days.... read more here.

A pregnant woman discharging some fluid during Ramadaan

Question: A woman was in her ninth month of pregnancy during Ramadaan. At the beginning of the month, she would have a white vaginal discharge with no traces of blood and she would, nevertheless, fast. This happened ten years ago.

My question is: “Should she make up for these days, bearing in mind that she fasted in spite of the white vaginal discharge she had?”

Answer: If the case is as you mentioned, her Sawm is valid and she does not have to make up for these days... read more here.

A pregnant or a breastfeeding woman fearing for her health or her baby’s during Ramadaan

Question: If a pregnant woman or a breastfeeding mother does not fast Ramadaan because she is afraid that fasting might cause harm to herself or to her baby what should she do? Should she make up for the missed days of fasting in addition to feeding the poor, make up for the missed days of fasting without feeding the poor, or feed the poor without making up for the missed days? What should she do in this case?

Answer: If a pregnant woman is afraid that fasting will be harmful to her or to the fetus, then she is not obliged to fast. She is only required to make up the missed days of fasting, as her case is similar to that of someone who is sick and cannot fast, or one who fears that fasting may cause him harm. Allaah says: …and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Sawm (fasts) must be made up] from other days.... read more here.

Observance or non-observance of Sawm for a pregnant woman in Ramadaan

Question: I was pregnant during Ramadaan so I did not fast during the entire month. Later on, I fasted for one complete month to make up for the days I missed in addition to giving Sadaqah (voluntary charity). I was pregnant again during a subsequent Ramadaan and thus did not fast. Later on, I made up for these missed fasts by fasting every other day for two months without giving Sadaqah. Does Sawm (Fast) in this manner necessitate paying Sadaqah?

Answer: If a pregnant woman is worried lest Sawm should harm her or her embryo, she is allowed to refrain from Sawm, provided that she makes up for the days of Sawm she misses. A pregnant woman falls under the same ruling as a sick person who cannot fast or fears that Sawm may cause them harm. Allaah (Exalted be He) says: …and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Sawm (fasts) must be made up] from other days.… read more here.

Fasting after bleeding of miscarriage

Question: A woman miscarried during the third month of her pregnancy on the first day of Ramadaan. She did not fast for the first five days of the month because of the bleeding after the miscarriage. Blood continued to remain in her vagina; however it did not pass the vaginal opening. Thus, she performed her prayers and continued fasting for the next twenty five days. Is her Sawm (fasting) and Salaah (prayer) valid in this case? It should also be mentioned that she performed Wudoo’ (ablution) for each prayer. Even until now she is still in the same condition; (there is still blood and wetness inside the vagina). She also mentioned that she was using contraceptives and tablets to prevent the onset of menstruation before becoming pregnant.

Answer: If the reality is as you mentioned with regard to the miscarriage taking place during the third month, then this blood is not considered postpartum bleeding. This is because that which she miscarried was still just a clot as opposed to being a human being at that time. Therefore, her Sawm and Salaah are valid even though she finds blood in her vagina so long as she performs Wudoo’ for every Salaah as was mentioned in your question.

Also, she is required to make up for the Sawm and Salaah she missed for five days. This bleeding is considered to be Istihaadah (abnormal vaginal bleeding outside the menstrual or post-partum period)… read more here.